It is mentioned that Nimrod had an astrologer, and once he said to him (to Nimrod): I see by calculating the positions of the stars that a man will be in your land and work on changing the religion to some other religion than yours, so then Nimrod said to him: in what land shall that be? So he answered: in this land, and he is not born yet, so then Nimrod said: we must separate men and women, and so he did and the mother of Abraham was pregnant but her pregnancy was not of clear appearance, and when the time had come for her to give birth she said to her husband Terah: I want to be alone and hide, and every woman at that time used to hide whenever she gets pregnant because of the cruel rule. Nimrod appointed a woman for every pregnant wife, so whenever she gives birth to a male he gets killed, and whenever she gives birth to a female then she is safe, so mother of Abraham escaped away when it was the time for her to give birth and entered a cave far away from people’s sights and she gave birth, and she used to check him up whenever she gets the chance to, and she used to block the cave’s entrance with rocks, and God took care of him and protected him against their evils. It was mentioned that he used to grow up in one day as would someone else grow up in a month, so he stayed there in the cave for thirteen years, so when he got old that much he got out of the cave and couldn’t bear it anymore, and when his mother came he caught her clothes and said to her: I must go out and see people, and so on until he got out with her and she said to him: if the king knew about you and you are born at this time he is going to kill you, but he didn’t care and got out and then she brought him to his uncle Azar. It might be that Terah after the birth of Abraham and while he was there in the cave, died and fate judged for his mother to be in the house of Azar and a wife for him and she gave birth to children for him and he got also children from others, and only God knows.
Abraham left the cave after the sunset and darkness was all over the place, and he knew that people are worshipping idols and Azar and all the people in his house except for his mother are idolaters as well, so he hated that and refused it and denied worshipping the idols. Then he saw an apparent star in the sky and it was Venus, so he said: this is my God, but when it disappeared he said: if it was my God indeed it won’t disappear, and then said: I don’t love things that set. Then he looked to the east and saw the moon so he said: this is my God, this is bigger, but when it moved and disappeared he said: Unless my Lord guide me, I surely shall become one of the folk who are astray. Then when it was the morning time and the sun rose and he saw its glance and light all over earth, he then said: this is my God, it is bigger and greater, but when it moved and disappeared, God then made him to see the throne and the kingdoms of heavens and earth and inspired him and guided him and filled his hearth with glow and he knew that this universe has a Creator, so then he said: O my people! Lo! I am free from all that ye associate (with Him), Lo! I have turned my face toward Him Who created the heavens and the earth, as one by nature upright, and I am not of the idolaters( Surah Al-An`âm:78-79).
And when his mother brought him to her home and made a place for him between her children and his uncle Azar knew about him he said: who is that that still alive while the king kills all the males? So his mother said: this is my son and I gave birth to him at the time of so and so. Then Azar said to her: If the king knew about it he will be so mad and we’ll be not in such a high place, and Azar was in fact a man of a high place under the rule of Nimrod and was his minister, and he used to give the idols for his children to sell it. So then Abraham’s mother said: do not worry, if the king did not know about it he will stay with us and if he knew about it I will not make you to defend him, and Azar used to love Abraham so much whenever he looks at him and used to give him the idols to sell them as his children do.
It is mentioned also that Abraham (P.B.U.H.) used to tie a rope in the necks of the idols and drags them over the ground and say: who would buy what harms him and give no benefits, and used to drop them in water and ask them to talk as to mock at them and as an insult for them and for whoever worships them, so his brothers mentioned that to their father Azar and that was so great for him so he warned him and threatened him to stop that, but he did not stop so he kept him at home and didn’t let him go out. Then the people of Abraham and his relatives had a debate with him so then he said: Dispute ye with me concerning Allah when He hath guided me ?(Al-An`âm:80). They mentioned (PUT) [meaning: the Household PUT] that he was born in the first day in the month of Ðul-Hajj [the 12th month in the lunar calendar for Muslims and the month of pilgrimage], and they say that he lived for one hundred and fifty seven years and buried in his current site in Al-Khalil (Hebron) in Palestine.
It is reported from the Household (P.B.U.T.) that Nimrod and all the people of his kingdom went out in a festival and Abraham hated to go out with them, so Nimrod appointed him to guard the idols house. He offered the idols food and give it to one after another and say to him: eat and talk, and when he gets no answer, and he knows that he will not get an answer and how come a non-living thing would answer him, he breaks its arms and legs with an axe until all of them are broken, then he hanged the axe over the neck of the biggest idol and it was in the middle of the place, and then when the king got back with his people and saw what happened to their idols they said: Who hath done this to our gods ? Surely it must be some evil- doer(Al-Anbiyâ’:59) Then they said: here is a boy that remembers them called Abraham and he is the son of Azar, so then they brought him with his father Azar, then Nimrod said to Azar: you betrayed me and kept this boy away, then Azar said: O my king, this is the deed of his mother and she said that she will defend for him, so then Nimrod called Abraham’s mother and asked her: what made you hide this boy until he did what he did to our gods? So then she said: O king, this is because I care about your people, he said then: and how is that? She answered: because you used to kill the kids of your people and this deed will decrease the population so I thought for myself that if it was this boy he is seeking let him kill it and leave the people alone and if he is not the enemy of the king then he would stay for us so I see now I am right and you got him and he is yours so do whatever you want to do with him and stop killing other people’s children. Then Nimrod looked at Abraham and asked: Is it thou who hast done this to our gods, O Abraham ? He said: But this, their chief hath done it. So question them, if they can speak(Al-Anbiyâ’:62-63). It is reported from Al-Sâdiq (P.B.U.H.): he (Abraham) said that their chief had done it and he did not lie because he said he had done it if only he can speak.
So then Nimrod asked his people what to do with him so they told him: burn him and make a victory for our gods if you want. Al-Sâdiq said: the king of Abraham and his folks were not wise for they said for Nimrod burn him, but the king of Moses and his folks were wise because when he (the king) asked his folks for what to do with Moses they told him to give him a chance with his brother and call every magician in the land, then Nimrod captivated Abraham and collected the woods and so when it was the day to throw him in the fire, Nimrod and his soldiers showed up and he built before that a building to see what will happen to Abraham when he is thrown in the fire and to see how the fire would burn him and the Satan came to them and showed them how to make the catapult because no one was able to approach the fire and they were buff led how to throw him into that great flame, and birds were burnt from a far because of it, so then they put Abraham onto the catapult and it is said that Azar came and slapped him and told him to get back to the religion but he did not care about it.
They mentioned that none of God’s creation, except for the human beings, wouldn’t ask God to save Abraham, so the earth said: O Lord, none on my back worships You except of him, would he be burnt! And angels said: O Lord, Your friend Abraham is getting burnt. So then, God did say: if he called for me, I will save him. And Gabriel said: O Lord, Your friend Abraham is getting burnt and You sent Your enemy to burn him. So then said God: Be silent, only a slave like you would say this because he is afraid of being late. and he is My slave, I can take him back whenever I want to, and if he called Me I would answer him. So then Abraham (P.B.U.H.) called his Lord by the words that are in the chapter of Al-Ikhlâs: O Allah (God), O The One, O The eternally besought of all, O One that begetteth not nor was begotten, O One that there is none comparable unto Him, save me from the fire by Your mercy. The narrator said: then Gabriel met with Abraham in the air and he was put in the catapult, and said to him: do you need me O Abraham? So then Abraham answered: for you no, but for the Lord of universe yes, so he (Gabriel) gave him a ring that has an engraving saying: No other god except for Allah, Muhammad is the prophet of Allah, Allah is before my back, Allah supports me, Allah got my life. Then when Abraham wore the ring, God commanded the fire “be coolness”, so then Abraham’s teeth started to shake and chatter because of the coolness, until He said unto it “and peace for Abraham” and then Gabriel got down and sat beside him and talking to him as if they were in a green garden. It is mentioned also that Gabriel (P.B.U.H.) brought a garment from paradise and he (Abraham) wore it and then they sat together talking. This garment is given by Abraham to Isaac, and Isaac gave it to Jacob, and Jacob gave it to Joseph and he made it in his neck and so it was with him (with Joseph) when he was thrown into the well and when he got into jail , and it is the garment that Joseph sent to his father from Egypt and made him blind no more, and this is what has been told in the public and it is transformed and narrated in different ways. Then Nimrod looked at Abraham (P.B.U.H.) and said: whoever had a god let him take a god as the one of Abraham, so then a great man that Nimrod had said: I made magic over the fire so it won’t burn him, then immediately a column of fire grew and burnt him. Then Nimrod looked at Abraham while he was sitting in a green garden in the fire with an old man talking to him, so then he said to Azar: the God of your son loves your son so much.
They mentioned also that after God’s commandment to the fire to be coolness and peace for Abraham, no fire worked on earth for three days, and it is reported from Al-Râzi that he said: scholars had different interpretations for the coolness of fire at that day in three ways, one of them is that God removed the heat that was in the fire and only the light in it remained, and the second way says that God created in the body of Abraham (P.B.U.H.) a protection against fire, as God do to the keepers of hell, and the third way says that God created a veil between Abraham and the fire and so the fire was kept away. Investigators said that the first way is the most truthful since it is apparent from God’s saying: O fire, be coolness and peace for Abraham(Al-Anbiyâ’:69), it is apparent that fire itself had been cool and so there are no protection or a veil and this is the correct opinion, and as reported from the prophet (P.B.U.H.) that when Abraham (P.B.U.H.) was thrown into fire, Gabriel (P.B.U.H.) came down with a garment from paradise and with a carpet, so he made him (Abraham) wear the garment and let him sit on the carpet and sat together talking.
In interpretations they say that after throwing Abraham into the fire by Nimrod, and after he got out of it as if nothing happened to him, Nimrod said to him then: O Abraham, who is your god? He answered: my God is the One that gives life and take it. Then said Nimrod: I give life and take it, then Abraham said to him: how come you give life and take it? Then Nimrod said: I bring two men that are to be executed, so I give mercy for one of them and release him and keep the other and kill him and so I gave life and took it. Then said Abraham to him: if you were truthful then give life again to the one you killed, then he said: leave this now, my God brings the sun from east, so bring it from west, and so Nimrod was amazed. God said: Bethink thee of him who had an argument with Abraham about his Lord, because Allah had given him the kingdom; how, when Abraham said: My Lord is He Who gives life and caused death, he answered: I give life and cause death. Abraham said: Lo! Allah caused the sun to rise in the East, so do thou cause it to come up from the West. Thus was the disbeliever abashed. And Allah guided not wrongdoing folk(Al-Baqara:258). The speech in this holy phrase was directed to our prophet (P.B.U.H.) for God’s saying “Bethink thee of him who had an argument with Abraham..etc.” And the prophet himself doesn’t know what is hidden in the future or destiny and only God knows, so He tells him what happened between Abraham and the damned Nimrod, and the one that had an argument with Abraham was Nimrod, and he was the first man to be a tyrant and called himself a god, and it has been told that this argument took place after throwing Abraham into the fire and being out of it with no harm and guided by God, and Nimrod had such an argument because of his high place and because people followed him and God gave him the time, but he rebelled and refused because of the kingdom he had and given by God, and the kingdom here is considered to be the ornaments of life and a human being would rebel when he becomes a rich, and such kingdom can be given to a faithful or a disbeliever, and Solomon ben David (P.B.U.T.) was given a kingdom and power that was nothing like them, and God never gave something similar to anyone else and he said: He said: My Lord! Forgive me and bestow on me sovereignty such as shall not belong to any after me(Sad:35), and so God gave him what shall not pass in the mind of anyone else and he is a prophet and a son of a prophet, and also He had given Nebuchadnezzar and the Pharaoh of Moses a kingdom and others a lot that were believers or disbelievers.
For the kingdom by means of owing people’s order and judgment and getting the loyalty of people that God guided, such things are not given by God except for one who God knows that they call for rightness and guidance and it is not to be except for a prophet or a viceroy or anyone faithful that God had chosen for His religion, and they know by the guidance of God what do people need in their life for religion, life matters and for the after-life. They say that when Abraham said to Nimrod that God brings the sun from the east so bring it from the west, Nimrod got surprised and couldn’t answer because of his surprise and he knew that Abraham got the rightful clue. Nimrod could have said to Abraham let your God bring it from the west but he was afraid from God’s reply to Abraham as He saved Abraham before from the fire. When Nimrod saw the miracles he knew that if he suggested that (bringing the sun from the west) Abraham would do it without a doubt and would make people believe him and in that way Nimrod would be ashamed, and God guided not the wrongdoing folks. As reported from Ibn-`Abbâs he said that God sent a mosquito to Nimrod and stung his lip, and when he tried to catch it it flied to his nose, and tried to get it out but then she got into his brain, so then God tortured him for forty nights then destroyed him.
In tidings, when Abraham broke the idols and after throwing him into the fire and getting out of it with no harm, he (Nimrod) ordered for Abraham to be exiled out of the lands, and avoid him from taking his money and cattle, so then Abraham asked for judgment to be made according to their own laws and regulations. In general he argued with them by saying: if you want to take my money, then you should give me an exchange for my life that I spent in your lands, so then they went to the judge of Nimrod to make a judgment about this matter, and the judge decided that Abraham was right, so they released him and released his cattle’s and all of his money, so then Abraham and Lot got out in the direction of the land of Shem (Syria and the surroundings) approaching the position of the holy shrine in Jerusalem before it had been built by many following centuries, and he made a bed for his wife Sarah and closed it roughly for he was so jealous, and she was the daughter of his uncle Pethuel the brother of Terah ben Nahor, and she was the first to believe in him, and other things rather than this had been said as in Muruj Al-Ðahab for Al-Mas`udi, but it also mentioned as we said before that she is Abraham’s maternal cousin and she was the sister of Lot ben Haran.
So he went along far away from his home to some where else like a stranger, he did not know anyone and no one invited him to his land, so he travelled until he was out of Nimrod’s kingdom until he got into the kingdom of a Coptic man called `Urara [maybe the author used “Coptic” here as a general name for Egyptians, the coming story is similar to the one mentioned in the chapter of Genesis in Torah, but the name of the Pharaoh is not mentioned in Torah], then he passed by a tithe-gatherer that takes tithes from people passing by his lands, so he blocked the way of Abraham to take the tithes of his money and cattle’s, so the officer that was appointed from `Urârah said: open the tomb (or the palanquin which had his wife Sarah in it) to take the tithes of it, so then Abraham said: say whatever you think it is there and ask for whatever you want of gold and silver to give you the tithes of it and don’t open it. But the tithe-gatherer denied that and insisted on opening the palanquin and he did, and Abraham became so angry because he was so jealous and afraid for his wife Sarah, and when the tithe-gatherer looked at Sarah, and she was pretty, he said: who is she? and what is her relation to you? So then Abraham said: she is my wife and my cousin. Then the officer said: I won’t let you go until I tell the king about you and her. Then he sent a messenger to the king and told him everything happened, and when the tidings reached the king he ordered the palanquin to be brought to him with what it had, and so they took the palanquin and Abraham went with them and never left the palanquin, and when they reached the king, the king said: open the palanquin, then Abraham answered: my wife and my cousin is inside and I am ready to give everything I have for not opening it, but the king was not satisfied until they opened it. When they opened it and he looked into Sarah he couldn’t hold himself and extended his hand trying to touch her, and Abraham then turned his face away for his jealousy and said: O God keep his hand away from my wife and my cousin, and so his hand didn’t reach her and didn’t get back to him (it is understood from this line that his hand was paralyzed) Then said the king: your God did that to me? So said Abraham: yes, then he said: pray to him to get it back to me, and if it was back to me I will leave you alone. So then Abraham prayed to God and so his hand got back to him, but the king looked at her again and extended his hand to reach her and Abraham turned his face away and said: O God keep his hand away, and so his hand was paralyzed and couldn’t reach her, so then the king said to Abraham: your God is jealous and you are jealous as well so call your God to let my hand back to me, and if it was so I will not do it again. Then said Abraham: O God if he was truthful let it back to him, and so it was, and when the king saw that Abraham grew so great for him and made him his guest and then said to him: go to wherever you want but I have a request, and that is to allow me to give her (Sarah) a pretty Coptic maid that I have and she is intelligent and I want her to be as a servant for your wife, and so Abraham allowed that, and so the king gave her to Sarah, and she was Hagar the mother of Ishmael (P.B.U.H.).
Then Abraham got out with all what he had and the king went out with him and walked behind Abraham for his greatness but Abraham refused this and didn’t accept that the king would walk behind him and so he made him in the front and Abraham walked behind him and he said: my God ordered me to walk behind you and respect you for your highness and so then the Coptic king said: I swear that your God is Clement and Generous, and you make your religion beloved by me, and then the king said farewells to him, and then Abraham went along until he reached the upper parts of Shem’s lands and left Lot in the lower parts of them, and God did say about this: And We rescued him and Lot (and brought them) to the land which We have blessed for (all) peoples(Al-Anbiyâ’:71) and it is the lands of Shem and Palestine because God had destined them to be the homelands for prophets and the lands of their tombs after Abraham (P.B.U.H.), and then when Abraham recognized that he did not have any children from Sarah, he said to her: if you like, you can let me have Hagar as a wife, maybe God will give me a son from her and he would be as a son for us as well, so he paid the dowry for Sarah and took Hagar as a wife and she gave birth to Ishmael (P.B.U.H.), and more to come about that later on.
God had revealed for Abraham twenty books as reported from the prophet (P.B.U.H.), and he (the prophet) was asked about their contents so he said: they were all proverbs and it had: O you egoist king of many troubles, I did not send you to gather earth all together, but I sent you to answer the calls of the wronged, for I do answer his calls even if he was a disbeliever, and every man of thought unless he was sick, he got three hours a day, an hour for his God, and an hour to judge himself, and an hour to think about God’s deeds to him, and one more hour for him to take what he likes by ways that God did allow,for this hour helps him to accomplish the other hours. The man of thought should live for three: to make a living, to get prepared for his after-life, or to get satisfied in ways that God allowed. Then a man asked the prophet (P.B.U.H.): and what was there in the books of Moses (P.B.U.H.)?, he (P.B.U.H.) answered: they were all examples (lessons) and they contained: I am amazed for the one who is certain of death, how come he becomes happy? And for whoever is certain of hell and fire, how come he laughs? And whoever sees this life and its fluctuations how come he is certain of safety? And for whoever that believes in destiny how come he runs after wealth and riches? And for whoever that is certain of the judgment, why he doesn’t work for that day?…etc..
Some tidings about the interpretation of God’s saying: Thus did We show Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and the earth(Al-An`âm:75) as reported from Al-Bâqir (P.B.U.H.) , a speech that has the meaning of that God gave Abraham a strength in his sight to see what is beyond heavens so he saw the Throne and what’s beyond it and saw the earth and what was beneath it, and so God did with his beloved the prophet (P.B.U.H.) and the viceroys after him from his Household (P.B.U.H.). In some other tidings that Abraham (P.B.U.H.) saw an angel so he asked: who are you? He answered: I am the angel of death, so then Abraham said to him: can you show me in what shape do you take the soul of a faithful man? Then said the angel of death: turn your face to the other way, and so did Abraham and then he looked back again at him and he saw a young man with a nice shape and beautiful clothes and with good scent, then said Abraham: if the faithful man isn’t see in his life except your shape then he had what he desires in this life, then he said to him: can you show me how your shape would be if you’re going to take the soul of a disbeliever? So he answered: you won’t bear it, but Abraham said: yes I d, and so the angel said: then turn your face away from me and so he did and looked back at him and then he saw a black man with standing hair and an awful smell with black clothes and flames with smokes going out from his mouth and nose, so when Abraham saw this he went into a coma, and then he woke up and saw the angel back again to his original shape so he said to the angel: O angel of death if the disbeliever just saw your shape he would stop doing wrongdoings in his life.
It is reported from Al-Sâdiq (P.B.U.H.) back from the prince of believers (P.B.U.H) that he said: when God wanted to take the soul of Abraham (P.B.U.H.) He sent down the angel of death and he said to him: Peace upon you Abraham, he then answered: and peace upon you O angel of death, did you come to me as an inviter or to announce my death? So he answered: but as an announcer for your death O Abraham so answer the call, then he said: O angel of death did you see a friend that makes death to his friend? So then the angel of death got back until he stood between the hands of God, the Exalted and said: O God You heard the talk of Your friend Abraham, so then God did say: O angel of death go back to him and ask him: did you ever saw a lover than don’t want to see his love? The great scholar Al-Sayid Ne`matullah Al-Jazâ’iri, the one who mentioned this story, said: inviter here is meant to be as for someone asking and giving the choices as if someone is inviting some guests, and a death announcer is meant to be as someone getting what he desires by force. So when Abraham (P.B.U.H.) knew that he has the choice, he asked for life to worship God more.
We say yes, and such thing would be done by a man like Abraham (P.B.U.H.) naturally, and it is possible that he had done such a thing as if he couldn’t imagine the situation and got afraid of moving from one world to another and there is the grave and the loneliness and judgment, did you not think about the saying of our prophet (P.B.U.H.) and his Household (P.B.U.T.): Whenever a faithful increase in his faith, the more fearful he becomes for God? There are certain tidings and speeches of certain origin and all agreed on their contents that denotes that a believer is in between fear and hope from God as the hands of a balance. Every prophet is scared to the maximum of God and at the same time he has the maximum hope and faith in His mercy. In tidings it is mentioned that when Al-Bâqir (P.B.U.H.) at the time of his death cried, and then his son, Al-Sâdiq (P.B.U.H.), said to him: O father why are you crying? So he answered him: for two things, the first is for leaving the beloved and the second is for the greatness and holiness of this situation. Then the most apparent clue for this matter, look to the pray of Abi-Hamza Al-Þumâli, and it is the pray of `Ali ben Al-Husain (P.B.U.H.). Whoever investigated the lives of prophets and viceroys and their followers he would be sure of what we’ve mentioned and I think that Abraham refused to move from this life to the after-life because the situation was so holy and great for him, and if he was to live all the age of life itself he would spend it as a worshipper and obeying God without a doubt.
Yes, Al-Husain ben `Ali (P.B.U.H.) at the day of Karbala at the time of his death and when Al-Shemer ben Ði Al-Jawshan sat over his holy chest, he (P.B.U.H.) was smiling and the halo filled his face, and he did not care about what they did to him beside raising the truth and showing the true and the false. Can you imagine how the angel of death faced him? I think he was crying as well. Shiites after his death kept saying as reported to him (P.B.U.H.):
If the religion of Muhammad won’t be fixed except by killing me
Then O swords come and take me
Yes some tidings say that Abraham made a pilgrimage to the Holy House at the end of his life, and after the pilgrimage he went back to the lands of Shem, and then the angel of death came to him to take his soul but Abraham hated death, so the angel of death got back to his Lord and said: Abraham hated death, so God then said to him: let go of Abraham, he likes to worship me. Then he (Abraham) saw an old man eating and vomiting whatever he eats, so then Abraham hated life and loved death, then he went into his home and saw a man with a good shape that he never saw something like it before, so he asked him: who are you? He answered: I am the angel of death, so then he said: O Holy Lord! Who hates your closeness and visiting you and you are in such a shape? So he answered: O friend of God, if God wanted goodness for His slave, He sends me in this shape, and if He wants evil for His slave, He sends me in another shape, and so he took his soul in the lands of Shem where his tomb lies now.
<>It is mentioned that Abraham used to live in the deserts of the lands of Shem, then when he was given Ishmael (P.B.U.H.) from Hagar, their matter became so heavy on Sarah and she had been sad for this since she didn’t have any children, so Abraham complaint about this to God, so then God inspired unto him and ordered him to move Ishmael and his mother away from her, so then he said: O God where to? and to what place? So He said: to My place. Then God got down Gabriel with Al-Burâq [Al-Burâq: in Islamic believes, it is a heavenly creature created of light and by which the prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) was able to travel to Jerusalem and then to heavens in one night. Tidings about this event are mentioned in the beginning of the chapter of Al-Isrâ’, which means “The Night Journey”], so it carried them with Hagar to the place of God, and Abraham used to say whenever they pass by a place with trees palms , used to say t Gabriel: O Gabriel in here? And he answers him back: go ahead, until they reached Mecca and put them in the place of the House (Kaba), so when they settled down in that place there were some trees there and so Hagar and the others sat in the shadow of one of them, and when Abraham wanted to leave Hagar said to him: O Abraham, are going to leave us in a place that has no one around nor water or plants? So then said Abraham: the One that ordered me to put you here will be enough for you, and then he left them, but before leaving that spot he turned his face towards them and said to God as it is mentioned in Quran:
Our Lord! Lo! I have settled some of my posterity in an uncultivable valley near unto Thy holy House, our Lord! that they may establish proper worship; so incline some hearts of men that they may yearn toward them, and provide Thou them with fruits in order that they may be thankful(Ibrahim:37). Then Hagar stayed with her son Ishmael (P.B.U.H.), and when it was noon time, Ishmael became thirsty and asked for water from his mother, so then Hagar wandered in the valley and called: is there anyone in the valley? Then Ishmael disappeared, then she went over Al-Safâ [Mountain’s name] and she saw a mirage in the valley and she thought it was water so she came down and approached it, so when she reached Al-Marwâ [the name of the passage in the valley] then Ishmael disappeared from her sight and then she saw a mirage in the position of Al-Safâ, and so on she did that for seven times, and on the seventh time and while she was on Al-Marwâ she looked to Ishmael (P.B.U.H.) and water appeared under his feet, so she came back to him and gathered the sand around it because it was flowing and so she tightened the flow by gathering the sand around it and that is why it is called Zamzam [Arabic: Zam = tightened, strengthened. Literature]. The tribe of Jorhom at that time were settling in `Arafât [another mountain], so when the water appeared in Mecca and the birds and the rest of animals started to dwell around it they knew that there is some water and they followed them, until then they saw a woman and a boy settled there under a tree and water appeared for both of them, so they said to Hagar: who are you and what is wrong with you and with this boy? So she said: I am the mother of the son of Abraham the friend of God and this is his son, so they said to her: do you allow us to be near you? So then she took the permission from Abraham because he used to visit them by any chance he had, so then Abraham allowed them and the tribe of Jorhom settled down near them, thus Hagar and Ishmael didn’t stay alone, and on the third time when Abraham checked them and saw many people around them he turned to be so glad for this. Then Ishmael grew up and every member of Jorhom’s tribe gave them some camels and they used to make a living by them, and then when Ishmael turned to be a man, God ordered Abraham to build the House, so he asked: O God in which spot? So He answered back: in the spot that I revealed the dome over Adam, and the dome remained there even at the time of the flood at the time of Noah (P.B.U.H.) and when the whole earth was sunk down, God uplifted this dome and so she was called the Saved House because it was saved from sinking [Saved House, in Arabic: Al-Bayt Al-`Ateeq].
When God ordered Abraham to build the House, he did not know where to make it, so then God sent Gabriel (P.B.U.H.) and he planned the position of the House, then God revealed the basis from paradise, and the stone that God revealed on Adam was whiter than snow but turned to be black when disbelievers touched it, so then Abraham built the House and Ishmael moved the stones for building from Ði-Tiwâ [seems a place name] (and in some other tales from the mount of Abi-Qobays) so he made it as high as nine cubits, then Gabriel (P.B.U.H.) guided Abraham to the position of the Stone and so he got it out and placed it in his current position as today, and he made two doors for it, one to the east and another to the west, and the door to the west is called Al-Mostajâr. When he built it and finished it all, Abraham and Ishmael made a pilgrimage, and Gabriel (P.B.U.H.) came down for them at the day of Al-Tarwiyah [meaning: day of giving water] and ordered them to give water and they carried it to `Arafât and Minâ [a place name] because there were no waters in those spots, then Abraham said what was mentioned in Quran: And when Abraham prayed: My Lord! Make this a region of security and bestow upon its people fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day, He answered: As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the doom of Fire – a hapless journey’s end!(Al-Baqarah:126).
In some tidings, the stone that have to be thrown in pilgrimage season are counted as seven for that when Gabriel (P.B.U.H.) showed Abraham how to do the pilgrimage, the Satan appeared or him and then Gabriel (P.B.U.H.) commanded Abraham to throw at him, and so he did with seven stones (pebbles), and so he (Satan) went under the ground and so Abraham stopped. Then the Damned appeared again and Abraham threw at him another seven stones and he went back again under the ground. Then the Damned appeared for the third time and Abraham threw at him seven stones and the Damned went again under the ground. Other tidings say that after the commandments of God for Abraham and Ishmael about building the Holy House, and after they had finished it, God ordered him (Abraham) to get on one corner and call on people: O come to pilgrimage. If he had said: O people come to pilgrimage, then only human beings that were created at that time would answer his calls, but he said “O come to pilgrimage” and so people in the core of men [meaning: people that are yet not born] answered the call, and whoever answered ten times he made pilgrimages for ten times and whoever answered five times then he made pilgrimage for five times and so on. Scholars differ about the exact meaning of the previous tale and about the difference in calling in singular form and plural form, and that the calling in a singular form is more general and includes the already existent with the ones that will be existent, but plural form would include only the existent beings only. [Some lines come here with a heavy philosophical concepts that I couldn’t follow or translate, but it emphasizes that Abraham called not only existent people at that time but also beings that will be founded later on]. In other tidings, when God ordered Abraham (P.B.U.H.) to call on the people for pilgrimage, he stood upon the place and he became as high as Abi-Qubays [mount#s name] and so then he called on for pilgrimage and for that people in the cores of men and women, for women heard him until the doomsday arrival. Another tale says that at the day of `Arafah and after the sunset, Gabriel went out with Abraham and said to him: O Abraham coness your wrongdoings and know your rituals, and for this it was called `Arafât, because of Gbariel’s saying “confess” and “know” [Arabic: confess: E`tarif (imp.), know: E`raf (imp.)], and there stayed Gabriel until the sunset (again) and then he went to Al-Mozdalifah [another spot’s name].
Some historians said that when Abraham left Ishmael and his mother Hagar in the valley where Mecca lies now, Abraham used to visit them from time to time and at the end God commanded them to build the House, and so they did and built the House and when they were finished God commanded Abraham to tell people that he built a House for worshipping God and they have to visit it to do their rituals, and Abraham with Ishmael asked God then to show them how to do the rituals and so He sent Gabriel (P.B.U.H.) and he taught them what to do. They say that after building the Holy House in Mecca, no buildings were built except before Islam by one hundred and fifty years in the second century before Islam and then the action of building took place and that was at the time of Qosay ben Kilâb, the fourth grandfather for the prophet (P.B.U.H.), and the first thing he built was Dâr Al-Nadwâ for Quraysh [Quraysh is the main tribe that lived in Mecca and for which the prophet (P.B.U.H.) belongs, the buildings name suggests that it was like a parliament place], and then they started building houses around the Holy House and before it was an empty space with no plants or buildings, and they said that nothing is planted there except for the desert plants that have no fruit.
Some Sentences About Sarah The Wife of Abraham As Told By Historians
Some historians gave some pictures about Abraham and his wife Sarah and what happened between her and Hagar with her son Ishmael (PUT) and about the reasons for Hagar and her son Ishmael travelling to Fârân (Paran) as in Torah, and Paran is a name given to some locations of which Mecca’s mounts are one of them, and lot of these are not suitable for such a high place of prophecy and unjust, and even can not be committed by a conscious man and some of them are not right at all, but it has lot of exaggeration as mentioned in the book of Genesis in Torah, and most of such pictures are taken from Jews and it has such matters that they report to Sarah the wife of Abraham (P.B.U.H.) but it opposes the dignity and nobleness, and there is no doubt that for Muslims, Sarah is considered one of the best of women, and she is attached to the degree of infallibility, and for the prophet and his Household (P.B.U.T.) she occupies a high level, and for them she is like Eve the mother of human beings and like Mary the daughter of Amram (P.B.U.T.), so she is a lady of her time and faithful souls do not accept to report about her and other women untrue things. They mentioned that when Sarah saw the son of Hagar that she gave birth to from Abraham, she said then to Abraham: banish this maid and her son for this maid’s son will not inherit with my son Isaac, and they said: then God said to Abraham: Whatever Sarah says do. They say also: So Abraham went in the early morning and took with him bread and water and gave them to Hagar then she put them on her shoulder and her son with her, then he banished her with her son and she went along in the deserts lost and did not know where to go. They said a lot of such tidings and legends, but what we can say for the press that printed such lies and what we can say for its owner, but no strength except by God, the Exalted.
Yes, in Al-Bukhâri [Hadith collection made by Al-Bukhâri after the prophet’s death] as reported by Ibn `Abbâs that the prophet (P.B.U.H.) said in a speech that minds can accept and souls can refuge in, and some of it is that Abraham brought her (Hagar) with her son Ishmael and he was still an infant and he (Abraham) placed them near by the House over the location of Zamzam, and at that time there were no one in Mecca nor water, so he just put them there and gave them dates and water, then Abraham went back from where he came then the mother of Ishmael followed him and said: O Abraham where are you going and leaving us in this valley with no one alive or anything? She said that many times but he did not look at her, then she asked: God ordered you to do this? He said: yes, then she said: then we are not lost. Then she got back and Abraham went along until he reached a position that they can’t see him, he faced the House and prayed with these words and raised his hands up to heaven and said: Our Lord! Lo! I have settled some of my posterity in an uncultivable valley near unto Thy holy House..etc.(Ibrâhim:37), then the mother of Ishmael started breast feeding for Ishmael and drink of that water until it was all finished and she got thirsty and also her son and then she looked at him and saw him crooked so she hated that view and went along and she found Al-Safâ so she went to the top and looked at the valley that she might find someone but she did not, so she went down into the valley with so much tiredness until she passed the valley and came to Al-Marwâ and she went on top of it looking for someone, but she did not find anyone, and so she did that for seven times. He (Al-Bukhâari) said: said Ibn `Abbâs: the prophet (P.B.U.H.) said: that is why people now walk between them for seven times [during the pilgrimage] then went she went to Al-Marwâ she heard a sound and she said: Shh! She then paid attention and she heard it clearly then she said: You’ve been heard, do you have any aid? Then she found an angel searching in the location of Zamzam by his feet (or by his wing) until the water appeared, so she started gathering the water. He (Al-Bukhâri) said: said Ibn `Abbâs: the prophet (P.B.U.H.) said: Mercy be upon the mother of Ishmael, if she did not take of the water then Zamzam would be a drying-out spring, then the angel said to her: do not be afraid of the place, here is the House of God which will be built by this boy and his father, and God will never make his people astray, and the speech about this matter is long and we’ve just taken what is in front of you, and it is close to rightness, and not so different from what Imamism suppose, notice and only God knows. In the same speech it is mentioned: Until Jorhom tribe came and lived with them for ages, and it is as an answer from God to Abraham, and so God made lot of people go to them like Jorhom and the Giants (?), and when Ishmael grew up and married from them and been an owner for lot of cattle’s and riches, then after that he built the House with his holy hands with his father Abraham (P.B.U.T.), then the mother of Ishmael died (P.B.U.H.) and he son buried her beside the Holy House and it is the place called now Hajar Ismâ`eel [meaning: The stone of Ishmael], and after his death he was buried also there beside his mother, and this is the most probable we could find by ways we’ve mentioned afore, and this is the most famous for them [I guess he means by “them” Sunni people] and it is the most suitable for their high level (Abraham and his Household), and only God knows what was hidden.
Abraham (PUH) was mentioned in twenty five chapters in holy Quran: Al-Baqarah, Âl-`Imrân, Al-Nisâ’, Al-An`âm, Al-Tawbah, Hud, Yusuf, Ibrâhim, Al-Hijr, Al-Nahal, Mariam, Al-Anbiyâ’, Al-Haj, Al-Shu`arâ’, Al-`Ankabut, Al-Ahzâb, Al-Sâffât, Sâd, Al-Shurâ, Al-Zokhrof, Al-Ðâriyât, Al-Najm, Al-Hadeed, Al-Momtahanah, Al-A`lâ. In the chapter of Al-Baqarah, the Exalted says: And when Abraham and Ishmael were raising the foundations of the House, (Abraham prayed): Our Lord! Accept from us (this duty). Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Hearer, the Knower. Our Lord! And make us submissive unto Thee and of our seed a nation submissive unto Thee, and show us our ways of worship, and relent toward us. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Relenting, the Merciful(Al-Baqarah:127-128) In the chapter of Âl-`Imrân: Lo! the first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Mecca, a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples(Âl-`Imrân:96). In the chapter of Ibrâhim: And when Abraham said: My Lord! Make safe this territory, and preserve me and my sons from serving idols(Ibrâhim:35). In the chapter of Al-Haj: And (remember) when We prepared for Abraham the place of the (holy) House, saying: Ascribe thou no thing as partner unto Me, and purify My House for those who make the round (thereof) and those who stand and those who bow and make prostration(Al-Haj:26), so follow (read) and notice (think).
We’ve pointed out that the story of Abraham (P.B.U.H.) is connected to other stories like the story of Lot, and the story of his son Ishmael and the story of his son Isaac, and we’ve mentioned that Lot was his maternal cousin and also his nephew and they were in the same time sequence, and Lot believed in his uncle Abraham and so he was calling people to his religion. The Exalted said: And Lot believed him, and said: Lo! I am a fugitive unto my Lord(Al-`Ankabut:26). They say that Ishmael was born when Abraham was eighty six years old, and Abraham lived for one hundred and seventy five years, while Isaac was born while Abraham was one hundred years old and his mother is Sarah the maternal cousin of Abraham.
They say that Abraham (P.B.U.H) got another six children from other woman other than Sarah and Hagar, but Quran did not mention apparently except Ishmael and Isaac. Torah mentioned that Abraham married a woman called Keturah [Arabic: Qaturah] and she gave birth for six children for him, and it mentioned their names but there is no need to mention them now because it has no effects. In Muruj Al-Ðahab for Al-Mas`udi he said: After Sarah’s death, Abraham married Qanturâ’ [just another variation of the name] and he had six children from her and they are Marq, Nafas, Madan, Midian, Sinân and Sereh [Hebrew: Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, Shuah].
Lot was mentioned in fourteen chapters in holy Quran: Al-An`âm, Al-A`râf, Hud, Al-Hijr, AL-Anbiyâ’, Al-Haj, Al-Shu`arâ’, Al-Naml, Al-`Ankabut, Al-Sâffât, Sâd, Al-Qamar, Al-Tahreem. Isaac was mentioned in eight chapters: Al-Baqarah, Âl-`Imrân, Al-Nisâ’, Al-An`âm, Ibrâhim, Mariam, Al-Anbiyâ’, Sâd. Their stories are mentioned in quran either in details or in brief, sometimes mentioning only some of their matters, and in some others more than that, and most of the prophets and viceroys are mentioned in that way. They mentioned that Ishmael lived for one hundred and thirty seven years, and we’ve mentioned that he died in Mecca and been buried there in the place that is known as Hajar Isma`eel, that is the one located near by the Holy house, with his mother, and this is the most popular.
It is mentioned that Ishmael had twelve sons, and some of them are: Hadâr, Tayyim, Mibsâm, Dawmah, Qidmah and Qaydâr, and they are mentioned in Genesis in Torah [The full list of names in Torah is: Nebaioth, Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Temah, Jetur, Naphish, Kedemah], and they mentioned that all of them started tribes of their own, and only God knows. Until now we did not find a specific way of how Abraham died and Quran did not mention how, but Torah mentioned that. In summary, Abraham (P.B.U.H.) lived for one hundred and seventy five years. In Muruj Al-Ðahab for Al-Mas`udi: Abraham died in the lands of Shem, and his age was at that time one hundred and ninety five years, and God revealed upon him ten books. When he died, his sons Isaac and Ishmael in the cave of Al-Makfeelah in the field of `Afroon ben Sarsar Al-Hashi, and there Sarah was buried before him, and it is the place of the monument of Al-Khaleel in Jirun and now it is called the city of Al-Khaleel (Hebron), and its old name was the village of Arbo` as it is mentioned in the tales of Abul-Wahâb Al-Najjâr.
In the chapter of Al-Sâffât there are some phrases that talk about Abraham (P.U.H.) and his prays to his Lord and his requests for guidance and the faithful descendants. Then God answered his calls and prays and gave him what he desired and gave him a faithful servant (son) but He put him under the test to show people how sincere he is to his Creator, the Exalted said: So We gave him tidings of a gentle son. And when (his son) was old enough to walk with him, (Abraham) said: O my dear son, I have seen in a dream that I must sacrifice thee. So look, what thinks thou ? He said: O my father! Do that which thou art commanded. Allah willing, thou shalt find me of the steadfast (Al-Sâffât:101-102). So the gentle son had nothing but to obey with happiness and sincere desire the commandments of God, and His messenger.
We have no doubt that everything a prophet, a messenger, or a viceroy would do or avoid is decided by God, and his deeds are done only by what is allowed and what gives benefits, however people liked it or not. Then, the duties that are assigned by God for people are not transferred except by prophets of human beings, and so for this infallibility is granted for them. We’ve pointed out before that a prophet or a messenger and their viceroys must be described with the highest of manners and so they should not be asked or opposed for what they are doing. For this, Ishmael did not refuse or deny what his father asked him for his manners and infallibility and he knew what would happen and said to his father: O my father! Do that which thou art commanded. Allah willing, thou shalt find me of the steadfast.When Abraham was about to do what he was commanded, and Ishmael had no opposition, and God knows their faith and their belief, and God then told them that it was His command to do so as to test them and gave them a ransom, and the Exalted said: We called unto him: O Abraham! Thou hast already fulfilled the vision. Lo! thus do We reward the good.Lo! that verily was a clear test.Then We ransomed him with a tremendous victim(Al-Sâffât:104-107).
Scholars differed in the one that had been ransomed for , some said it is Isaac ben Abraham, and this opinion is favored by many Muslim scholars, while Imamate scholars agreed that the one ransomed for was Ishmael ben Abraham (P.U.T.). Al-Mas`udi said: people argued about who was to be ransomed for , some said he is Isaac and others say he is Ishmael , and if the commandments took place in the land of Hijâz, then Ishmael is the one because Isaac did not go to Hijâz before, but if the commandment took place in the lands of Shem, then Isaac is the one, because Ishmael did not go the lands of Shem after getting out of it. We say that tidings from the Household (P.B.U.T.) been reported that their grandfather the prophet (P.B.U.H.) said: I am the son of the two ransomed for, and they interpret this saying by saying that these two are his father `Abdullah ben `Abd Al-Muttalib, and his grand grandfather Ishmael (P.B.U.H.), and they mentioned other things about their details.
Maybe the source of such debate is that Quran did not mention the name of the one that was ransomed for, but it is obvious for anyone that meditated in the holy phrases from the chapter of Al-Sâffât that he is Ishmael (P.U.H.) by clues that are so clear and no way to interpret them, go through their order and you will get the exact situation. After telling the story of the event and God’s rewards to Abraham by saying: Lo! he is one of Our believing slaves(Al-Sâffât:111), then after that comes the happy tidings to Abraham from God about Isaac and letting him to be a faithful prophet later on, so God said: And we gave him tidings of the birth of Isaac, a prophet of the righteous. And We blessed him and Isaac. And of their seed are some who do good, and some who plainly wrong themselves(Al-Sâffât:112-113). Then the tidings about Isaac came after telling the story of the dream of Abraham, and this is a great clue for that the son mentioned is not Isaac, because telling the name of Isaac gives an obvious clue that Isaac and the one that was ransomed for are different apparently.
Saying “And we gave him tidings of the birth of Isaac” and it is connected by “and” to the person in the previous story, then for sure it is not Isaac and it is Ishmael without a doubt. Abdul Wahâb in his tales said: The main character in this story for Jews in Torah is Isaac, then he said: and I think that the name of Isaac was put in(by them) between the lines of the story for they are cautious and careful to make their grandfather is the one that gave his life for God since his childhood, then he said: and my clue that the one who sacrificed himself for God is Ishmael is derived from Torah itself when it comes to mention that the child is the only child for Abraham that he has no one else except him and it is a clue for Abraham’s ultimate faith in God, so much that he gave his only child to scarify with, but if we considered Isaac we see that he was never alone because he was born and Ishmael was fourteen years old as it is mentioned in Torah itself also and Ishmael stayed until the death of his father and he was near him when he died and buried him. We say that this is a strong prove and the truth is what had been said (by Abdul-Wahâb) and he has many correct opinions.
They say that when he was to be sacrificed with, he was thirteen years old and it is the age of an adult, and he had became able to do what his father can do and he had to help him and work for God and worship Him, and he reached the ultimate level of thought and sense, so this is why he obeyed the commandment of God with his father. When his father laid him on the ground on his side to slay him and God knew how sincere they are, and both of them decided to and showed the deed in public, and when they reached the level of doing, God showed the secret for what they were commanded to do so, and that He did not desire the deed itself but it is a test and thus God gave the ransom, so God said “Then We ransomed him with a tremendous victim” and they say it was a great ram, and as reported by Ibn `Abbâs, it is the same ram that God accepted from Abel, and for saying “tremendous victim” it is because it (the ram) grazed in paradise for forty years. From the interpretations of `Ali ben Ibrâhim in a long speech attributed to Al-Sâdiq (P.U.H.) which included that when Ishmael gave himself to be sacrificed with and when Abraham wanted to slay him, and old man came and said: O Abraham, what do you want from this boy? He answered: I want to slay him, so he said: O God, a boy that never did wrong to God, so said Abraham: God ordered me to do so, so he answered: God denies this but it is something from Satan, then said Abraham: woe unto you! The One who made me reach this high level ordered me to do so, then the old man said: O Abraham you are a great man and people follow you and if you killed your son now they will follow you by killing their children, but he did not answer him and he asked his son about slaying him, and when all surrounded to the commandments of God, the boy said: O father, tie me and cover my face, so then said Abraham: O son, the tie and the slay? No I sweat that I will not do them to you, then he laid him and put the knife over his neck and lifted his head to the sky and ran the knife over his neck, but Gabriel flipped the knife and pulled the great ram and made him in the place of the boy, then he (Abraham) was called from the side of the mosque “Thou hast already fulfilled the vision. Lo! thus do We reward the good.”
It is mentioned also that he said to his father: slay me while i am prostrating so you won’t see my face and have mercy on me, it is also mentioned that he said: tie me tightly father so I won’t become nervous and keep your clothes away from me so that my blood shall not reach them and then my mother would see it and sharpen your knife and run it fast on my neck to make it easier for me because death is hard, then Abraham said: What a help you are for God’s commandment. In some tidings it is included that God inspired unto Abraham and He knows what is in the mind afore: what creation is beloved to you more than anything else? He answered: Your beloved Muhammad, for You did not create a creation that is more beloved to me than him, so god said then: is he beloved more than yourself? So said Abraham: he is beloved more than myself, then God said: are his children beloved to you more than your own children? He said: his children are, so God said then: is killing his children by their enemies more hurtful to your heart or killing your own son for My commandments? He answered: It is killing his children by their enemies that is more hurtful to my heart, then God said: O Abraham, there will be a group that claim to be followers for Muhammad, they will kill Al-Husain after him for no rights and they will slay him as for slaying a ram and thus they will deserve My anger, then Abraham got shocked and so sad and started crying. There are many tales and speeches about this matter but we did not come to mention them for it might be so boring.
There are also some tidings that mention the prophets’ stops in Karbala before the massacre and their passing through the location of death of Al-Husain ben `Ali and the son of Fâtima the daughter of the prophet (P.B.U.T.), and their crying for him after telling them about his trouble and the massacre by Gabriel (P.B.U.H.). Such tidings were told by Gabriel to every messenger and prophet since the time of Adam (P.B.U.H.) until the time of Jesus ben Mary (P.B.U.H.) and all of them used to cry and have pains for it. [some lines come here but add nothing to the matter and complicated somehow to translate].