Prophet Ibrahim The father of the Prophets

In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful




The birth of a Great Prophet

Ibrahim was born in a house of idolaters, in the kingdom of Babylon. His father Aazar was a well known idol sculptor that his people worshipped. As a young child, Ibrahim used to watch his father sculpting these idols from stones or wood. When his father was done with them, Ibrahim would use them as toys, riding on their backs, and kicking them at times. Then after a while, he would see these same statues in the temple, and people prostrating in front of them! Ibrahim asked his father: “Why do you take these toys to the temple?” His father said: “They are statues that represent our gods. We worship them, we ask favors from them, and we offer them presents.” Ibrahim’s mind rejected this idea, and he felt a repulsion towards the idols.

In search for the Truth

Time went by, and Ibrahim became a young man. He still could not believe that his people were worshipping the statues. He laughed whenever he saw them entering the temple, lowering their heads, silently offering the statues the best of their food, crying and asking forgiveness from them. He started feeling angry towards his people, who could not realize that these are only stones that could neither benefit nor harm them. They could not be gods, they have no power. God is Greater than what his people were worshipping, Most Powerful, Most Magnificent. One could not find Him sitting on a table in a temple!

One night, Ibrahim went up to the mountain, leaned against a rock, and looked up to the sky. He saw a shining star, and told his people: “Could this be my Lord?” But when it set he said: “I don’t like those that set.” The star has disappeared, it could not be God. God is always present. Then he saw the moon rising in splendor and told them: “Could this be my Lord?” But it also set. At daybreak, he saw the sun rising and said: t “Could this be my Lord, this is bigger?” But when the sun set he said: “O my people I am free from all that you join as partners with Allah! I have turned my face towards Him Who created the heavens and the earth, and never shall I give partners to Allah.” Our Lord is the Creator of the heavens and the earth and everything. He has the power to make the stars rise and set. Ibrahim then heard Allah calling him: “O Ibrahim!” Ibrahim said trembling: “Here I am O my Lord!” “Submit to Me! Be a Muslim!” Ibrahim fell on the ground, prostrating and crying, he said: “I submit to the Lord of the universe!” Ibrahim kept prostrating until night came again. He got up and went back to his home, in t peace, full of conviction that Allah has guided him to the Truth.

Ibrahim invites his father to Islam

A new life started for Ibrahim. His mission now was to call his people to the Truth. He would start with his father who was the closest person to him, and whom he loved so much. He said to him in the softest and kindest voice: “O father! Why do you worship that which doesn’t hear, doesn’t see, and cannot avail you in anything? O father, I have got knowledge which you have not, so follow me. I will guide you to a straight path.” His father replied angrily: “Do you reject my gods, O Ibrahim? If you don’t stop I will stone you. Get away from me before I punish you.” Ibrahim said: “Peace be on you! I will ask forgiveness of my Lord for you.”

Ibrahim confronts his people and rejects their idols

He left his father after he lost hope to convert him to the right path, and directed his efforts towards the people of the town, but they rejected his call and threatened him. By Allah, he said, I shall plot a plan to destroy their idols. He knew that a big celebration was coming soon, where everybody would leave town for a big feast on the riverbank. After making sure that nobody was left in town, Ibrahim went towards the temple armed with an ax. Statues of all shapes and sizes were sitting there adorned with decorations. Plates of food were offered to them, but the food was untouched. “Well, why don’t you eat? The food is getting cold.” He said to the statues, joking; then with his ax he destroyed all the statues except one, the biggest of them. He hung the ax around its neck and left.

How big was the shock when the people entered the temple! They gathered inside watching in awe their gods broken in pieces. They wondered who might have done this? Then they all remembered that the young Ibrahim was talking evil of their idols. They brought him to the temple and asked him: “Are you the one who has done this to our gods?” Ibrahim said: “No, this statue, the biggest of them has done it. Ask them if they can speak.” “You know well that these idols don’t speak!” They said impatiently. “Then how come you worship things that can neither speak nor see, nor even fend for themselves? Have you lost your minds?”

They kept silent for a while, for he got a point there. Their minds and their senses were telling them that the Truth is with Ibrahim, but their pride prevented them to accept it, and reject the idols they were worshipping for generations. This they thought would be total defeat. They started yelling at him and shouting: “Burn him! Burn him! Take revenge for your gods !”

The Miracle: Allah saves Ibrahim from the fire.

The decision to burn Ibrahim to death was affirmed by the priests and the king of Babylon, Nimrod. The news spread like a fire in the kingdom, and people were coming from all places to watch the execution. A huge pit was dug up and a large quantity of wood was piled up. Then the biggest fire people ever witnessed was lit. The fire flames were so high up in the sky that the birds could not fly over it for fear of being burned ! Ibrahim’s hands and feet were chained, and he was put in a catapult to throw him into the fire. At that time, Angel Jibreel came to him and said: “O Ibrahim! Is there anything you wish for?” Ibrahim could have asked to be saved from the fire, to be taken away, but no, he said: “I only wish that Allah be pleased with me.” The catapult was released, and Ibrahim was thrown in the heart of the fire. But Allah would not allow His Prophet to be killed, He ordered the fire: “O fire! Be coolness and safety for Ibrahim!” And the miracle happened. The fire obeyed and burned only his chains. Ibrahim came out from it as if he was coming out from a garden, peaceful, his face illuminated, and not a trace of smoke on his clothes. People watched in shock and said: “Amazing ! Ibrahim’ s God has saved him from the fire!”

Ibrahim debates the Babylonian king, Nimrod

Ibrahim’s notoriety grew bigger after this event and the king of Babylon felt that his throne was in danger, and that he was loosing power, because he was pretending that he was a god. He sent for Ibrahim. He wanted to debate with him and show his people that he, the king is indeed the god, and Ibrahim was a liar. He asked Ibrahim: What can your god do that I cannot?

-My Lord is He Who gives life and death.” Ibrahim said

-I give life and death. I can bring a person from the street and have him executed, and I can grant my pardon to a person who was sentenced to death and save his life.” The king said proudly

-Well my Lord Allah makes the sun rise from the East. Can you make it rise from the West?

The king was confounded. He was beaten at his own game, on his own territory, in front of his own people! Ibrahim left him there speechless and went back to his important mission, calling people to worship the one and only God, Allah.

Allah blesses Ibrahim with a son to become a prophet

Only a woman named Sarah and a man named Lot believed in Allah, and followed Ibrahim. He realized that nobody else would listen to him, and decided to emigrate for the cause of Allah, and to spread His Message elsewhere. Before leaving, he tried once again to convert his father to Islam, but to no avail. Ibrahim said to his father and his people: “We are free of you and of whatever you worship besides Allah. We have rejected you and there has arisen between us and you enmity and hatred forever unless you believe in Allah and Him alone.”

Ibrahim, Lot and Sarah started their long travel. They crossed Babylon, went through Syria and Palestine calling people to Allah, helping the poor and doing good deeds. By that time Ibrahim married Sarah. Their hope was to have children who would spread the Message of Allah after their death. As for Lot, he emigrated to the land of Sodom and settled there.

Time went by and no children were born to Sarah. She realized she was sterile. She accepted her fate and submitted to the will of Allah. Ibrahim and Sarah moved to Egypt where the king gave Sarah a woman to be her servant. The woman’s name was Hajar. Sarah was seeing Ibrahim’ s hair getting white, and it grieved her to see his chance of having any child slipping away. She offered Hajar her servant as a wife to her husband, and prayed Allah to bless Hajar and Ibrahim with a child. And so came Ismail, a baby boy born to Hajar. How unselfish Sarah was! For her, the need to have an offspring who would carry the Message after Ibrahim was greater than her pride. Fourteen years later Allah rewarded Sarah with a son, Ishaq in spite of her old age.

Young Ismail and his mother alone in the desert of Makkah

Ibrahim woke up one day and asked Hajar to prepare herself and baby Ismail for a long travel. Ibrahim and Hajar kept walking, crossed a fertile land followed by barren mountains till they arrived at the Arabian desert. Ibrahim brought Hajar to a high hill called al-Marwa, made her and her baby sit under a tree, placed a bag of dates and some water near her, and set out homeward. Hajar ran after him and said: “Are you going to leave us in this desert where there is no one to keep us company?” She repeated this many times but he would not look back at her. She asked: “Has Allah ordered you to do so?” He said yes. “Then He will not neglect us.” She said. Ibrahim walked away until he got out of their sight, he raised his hands and prayed Allah: “O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring dwell in a valley with no cultivation, by Your Sacred House, in order that they may offer prayers. So fill some hearts among men with love towards them, and provide them with fruits, so that they may give thanks.”

Zamzam

Hajar went on nursing Ismail and drinking from the water until it was all used up. She became very thirsty and the child was crying. She left him on the al-Marwa hill and hurried to the nearest hill, as-Safa. She stood there and started looking at the valley keenly so that she might see somebody, but she could not see anybody. She descended from as-Safa, crossed the valley running and reached al-Marwa hill. She stood and started looking but could see nobody. She kept running between as-Safa and al-Marwa seven times. When she reached al-Marwa for the last time, she was exhausted, she sat next to the baby. Then she heard a voice. She stood up and said: “O whoever you might be! Have you got something to help me?’ She saw an angel, Angel Jib reel, digging the earth until water flowed ! She built a little basin around it. She scooped water with her hands, drank, filled her water-skin, and nursed her baby. The place from which water flowed was Zamzam. Muslims till this day drink from the holy water of Zamzam, and during Hajj they walk between as-Safa and al-Marwa seven times to commemorate this event.

Some Arabs traveling through Makah saw birds flying around alMarwa. “They must be flying around water.” They said. When they arrived at the water, they found Hajar and asked her: “Would you allow us to stay with you, and use the water from your well?” She agreed and was pleased by their company. The people sent for their families, settled there and became permanent residents. The whole valley became alive. Ismail grew up, learned Arabic, and later married a woman from amongst the Arabs.

Meanwhile, Ibrahim who had not seen his son since he was a baby, came back to Makah to visit him. Upon arriving, he heard that Hajar had died, but Ismail was still living there. Ibrahim was yearning to see his son whom he loved and missed a lot. He saw Ismail under a tree near Zamzam, sharpening his arrows. When he saw his father, Ismail rose up, hugged him and greeted him. It was the happiest moment for both father and son. But Allah wanted to put them to test, and it was a tough test indeed. During one night, Ibrahim had a dream. He came to Ismail and said: “O my son ! I have seen in a dream that I am slaughtering you as a sacrifice to Allah, so what do you think?” They both realized that this was an order from Allah. Ismail said without hesitation: “Do what you are commanded, you shall find me very patient    Insha Allah.” They had both submitted to the will of Allah. Ibrahim laid his son prostrate, put his forehead on the ground and directed a sharp knife towards his neck. At this very moment, Allah called him: “O Ibrahim! You have fulfilled the dream! Thus do We reward the good doers !” A big sheep was sent down from heaven to be slaughtered instead of Ismail, which Ibrahim did, and they both had a big celebration that day. This event is celebrated every year by all Muslims. It is Eid al-Adha where we slaughter the sacrificial sheep.

Ibrahim and Ismail kept on calling people to worship Allah. At that time there was no place built for the worship of Allah. Ibrahim wished there could be such a place where people would be in peace, and concentrate solely for the worship of Allah. His wish was answered when Allah ordered him to build the Sacred House, the Ka’bah. Ibrahim said to Ismail: “O Ismail, Allah has given me an order, will you help me execute it?” “Yes I will.” Ismail said. “Allah has ordered me to build a house here.” He said, pointing to a hillock higher than the land surrounding it. They went towards the place and started building the foundations of the Ka’bah Ismail brought the stones and Ibrahim built the walls, and when the walls became high, Ismail brought a large stone and put it in front of his father who stood over it and carried on building, while Ismail was handing him the stones. Both of them went on building and going around the Ka’bah, saying: “O our Lord accept this service from us.” When they finished the building, Angel Jib reel descended from heaven and showed Ibrahim the rituals of Hajj. Then Ibrahim stepped on the stone and called on people: “O people obey your Lord.” This large stone which Ibrahim stepped on is still there to this day near the Ka’bah. It is called Makam Ibrahim.

Thus ends the story of Ibrahim, the father of the prophets. From him descended all the prophets who came later, including Muhammad, sall allahu alayhe wa sallam. Ibrahim devoted all his life calling others to the True religion: Islam. Alone he stood against his people, his father, and even the mighty king of Babylon, and never flinched. Yet his method was always to gradually persuade them by bringing irrefutable proofs, that most often embarrassed those who refused to accept the Truth, but as Allah said: “Any whom Allah leaves to stray, there is none to guide !”

Abraham The God’s Friend (P.B.U.H.)


Bismillah hir Rahman nir  Rahim

He is the second of the major prophets and one that had general religion and laws. God did say in the chapter of Al-Nahl: Lo! Abraham was a nation obedient to Allah, by nature upright, and he was not of the idolaters; Thankful for His bounties; He chose him and He guided him unto a straight path.(Al-Nahl:120-121). What is brought by some tidings about interpreting this holy phrase that he (P.B.U.H.) had a religion that no one else had so he was like a nation alone, and obedient means that he was obeying and faithful. And as reported from Al-Kâthim (P.B.U.H.): In all the world save but one that was worshipping God and if there were someone else with him then God would add him in His saying “Abraham was a nation”, and then God made for him a company and gave him Ismael and Isaac, so they became three, and God talked to His beloved the prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) and ordered him to follow the religion of Abraham, and in some news from Al-Husain ben `Ali (P.B.U.H.): None is following the path of Abraham except of us and our followers and all the people are astraying away from it. Abraham is the son of Terah (Tarah) [ Hebrew: Terach, Arabic: Târih] ben Nahor ben Serug ben Reu [Arabic: Ar`u] ben Peleg [Arabic: Fâlig] ben Eber [Arabic: `Âbir] ben Salah [Arabic: Shâlikh] ben Arfakhshað ben Shem ben Noah (P.B.U.T.), as it is mentioned in Murooj Al-Ðahab for Al-Mas`udi and some stories for Abdul-Wahâb Al-Najjâr go along with such chain of fathers although there are some differences in four names, but such differences never harm. His birth took place in one of Kufa’s villages in Iraq that was called Kuþâr and some said it is called Fadân-Arâm (Paddan-Aram) and his father was one of people of this village, and the mother of Abraham and the mother of Lot were sisters and they were daughters of Lâhij and Lâhij was a prophet but not a messenger, and Abraham got married to Sarah and she was his maternal cousin and she owned many cattle and a large landscape, and so then she had put all of that under the control of Abraham (P.B.U.H.) and he worked on taking care of it all, and all of that is taken from a speech for Al-Sâdiq (P.B.U.H.) and it is long.


It is also mentioned that Lot was rather the nephew of Abraham (son of his brother) and there is no conflict in that since that Terah, the father of Abraham, is the father of Hârân (Haran), the father of Lot, so then Terah and His son Haran married two sisters and they are the daughters of Lâhij and they gave birth to Abraham ben Terah and Lot ben Haran (P.B.U.T) and so Lot is the maternal cousin for Abraham and his brother’s son as well, be aware and you will understand, and we’ve come to mention before that Sarah was the maternal cousin for Abraham and she is the sister of Lot but she was the sister of Lot by the mother and not by the father [meaning: her father is NOT Haran himself, but someone else], because Haran is the brother of Abraham and so Abraham can’t get married to his brother’s daughter, but after the death of Haran, the father of Sarah got married to her mother and she gave birth to Sarah, so obviously, Sarah is the sister of Lot by his mother and she is the maternal cousin of Abraham, and Lot is the nephew of Abraham and also his maternal cousin. It is reported from the book of Barnaba that Abraham was a lad from Paddan-Aram in Iraq, and his people were pagans and his father was a carpenter that makes idols and sell it to whoever worships them, and that Abraham was enlightened by God and guided by Him and knew that idols don’t hear nor see, and they don’t hear any call and can’t answer any pray and don’t harm nor give benefits, and this is also what was mentioned in Torah, and in Holy Quran it is mentioned in the chapter of Al-Anbiyâ’: And We verily gave Abraham of old his proper course, and We were Aware of him, When he said unto his father and his folk: What are these images unto which ye pay devotion? (Al-Anbiyâ’:51-52), and in the chapter of Al-An`âm: (Remember) when Abraham said unto his father Azar: Takest thou idols for gods? Lo! I see thee and thy folk in error manifest(Al-An`âm:74), and in the chapter of Al-Sho`arâ’: Recite unto them the story of Abraham, When he said unto his father and his folk: What worship ye? They said: We worship idols, and are ever devoted unto them.(Al-Sho`arâ’:69-71), and also: And forgive my father. Lo! he is of those who err(Al-Sho`arâ’:86).

Whoever noticed the conversation between Abraham and his father Azar in the holy book would see a man with great patience and passion and no one is like him, and whenever his father steps away from him he goes to him to guide him for he is afraid for him from the torture in the after-life, while his father Azar exaggerated with his cruelty, but he was trying to make him happy and loved by God, but Azar was escaping away from him and promising him the punishment of the idols and the judgment of Nemrud. Look by the eye of the heart to this conversation and to the passion of the friend of God and the cruelty of Azar from the chapter of Mariam which tells the debate between a pagan that couldn’t catch happiness and a prophet and a messenger of God, Abraham (P.B.U.H), and God said in it (the chapter of Mariam): And make mention (O Muhammad) in the Scripture of Abraham. Lo! he was a saint, a prophet. When he said unto his father: O my father! Why worshippers thou that which hearth not nor seethe, nor can in aught avail thee ? O my father! Lo! there hath come unto me of knowledge that which came not unto thee. So follow me, and I will lead thee on a right path. O my father! Serve not the devil. Lo! the devil is a rebel unto the Beneficent(Mariam:41-44), and his answer to him was: He said: Rejects thou my gods, O Abraham ? If thou cease not, I shall surely stone thee. Depart from me a long while! He said: Peace be unto thee! I shall ask forgiveness of my Lord for thee. Lo! He was ever gracious unto me(Mariam:46-47).


Then Abraham (P.B.U.H) disowned Azar and his deeds and did not like to live in his place and between his people so he left them by an order from God to Palestine and Shaam [Shaam: Syria and the surroundings], and Abraham was looking for guiding his father and his father promised to follow him and for this he did pray for forgiveness for his father but when he knew that he will keep on worshipping the idols and stay on the religion of his people he (Abraham) disowned him and his people and their worshipping, and this is testified by the chapter of Al-Tawbah: The prayer of Abraham for the forgiveness of his father was only because of a promise he had promised him, but when it had become clear unto him that he (his father) was an enemy to Allah he (Abraham) disowned him. Lo! Abraham was soft of heart, long-suffering(Al-Tawbah:114). In the stories of Abdul-Wahab Al-Najjâr: Then Abraham did travel to Palestine as a stranger with his wife Sarah and his nephew Lot and his wife, God did say in the chapter of Al-`Ankaboot: And Lot believed him, and said: Lo! I am a fugitive unto my Lord. Lo! He, only He, is the Mighty, the Wise(Al-`Ankaboot:26) and so they lived there and it was the land of Canaanites and he (Abraham) lived in Shakim and it is now the city of Nabulus but he didn’t stay for long time but he kept on moving to the south as denoted by some Toratic phrases about his journey to Egypt and to the land of Abi-Mâlik (Abimelech) [Hebrew: Abiymelek]. There is a talk that has some conflicts, and the one that quoted it is hesitated since the resources for this talk are the Torah and the Bibles mostly, and still they have some opposition and conflicts in the same resource and also between each of them, so we don’t quote anything unless we make sure it coincide with what we are sure that it is been told by the holy prophet (P.B..U.H.) and the holy Quran by the way of his Household the purified, or whatever is close to that by the way of others which is accepted by the righteous mind and thought and logic.


Al-Mas`udi announced in Muruj Al-Ðahab [book’s name: Plains of Gold], that Azar is Terah the father of Abraham, and what is apparent is that Azar is a character (description) for Terah ben Nahor according to him (Al-Mas`udi), so he said about it this: and when God took the soul of Nahor, his son Terah stood after him and he is Azar the father of Abraham and at his time lived the king Nimrod..etc. [in the book it is Nimrod ben Canaan, but searching in the old testament the only trace I had is Nimrod ben Cush]. It is apparent that most of our brothers of Islamic scholars and historians believe that the father of Abraham was a pagan, and one of them also Abdul-Wahâb Al-Najjâr, for this is what is obvious from the holy phrases. After proving that Azar is Terah ben Nahor the father of Abraham, he (Abdul-Wahâb) mentioned some interpretations for the word “Azar” as being a substitute for the word “father” that was mentioned in Quran, or it might be a word for calling shame upon him (maybe because he stood beside falsehood and paganism) [notice: Âzar in Arabic means “he helped”], or it might mean “to restrain”, and Terah is his name but Azar is a character for him or an adjective.

And Al-Râzi said in his interpretation for the holy phrase “when Abraham said unto his father Azar”(Al-An`âm:74): what this phrase shows is that Azar is the name of Abraham’s father. And said Al-Zajjâj: there is no doubt that his name was Terah. And some people that have no faith made this a point of crack in holy Quran, and there are some explanations been mentioned about this matter, one of them is that the father of Abraham (P.B.U.H) was Terah and Azar was his uncle, and the uncle could be called as “father” as it is mentioned by God in telling the story of the sons of Jacob when they said: We shall worship thy God, the God of thy fathers, Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac(Al-Baqarah:133), and it is well known that Ishmael was an uncle for Jacob but they called him as “father” and so it is the situation here, and then said Al-Zajjâj: the Shiites said that none of the prophet’s (P.B.U.H) fathers was a pagan or a disbeliever [meaning the prophet Muhammad] and they mentioned that Azar is his (Abraham’s) uncle and they got the clues for it, so then he mentioned the point of views and the clues in a long speech and talk and it is well known for them (Sunnites) in their creed for whoever has the knowledge of it. One of the point of views is God’s saying: Who seethe thee when thou stands up (to pray), And (seethe) thine abasement among those who fall prostrate (in worship) (Al-Shu`arâ’:218-219), meaning that his halo was moving from one to another among those who fall prostrate until it became to `Abdul-Muttalib [Grandfather of Muhammad P.B.U.H]and his son `Abdullah [father of Muhammad P.B.U.H.]  so then it became to existence [meaning the halo was moving from ancestors until it became apparent by the existence of Muhammad P.B.U.H], and more explanations will become in the future by God’s own will.


In summary, they don’t believe that his (Abraham’s) father was a faithful, and according to their creed (Sunnites) is it not a shame and accepted for they don’t believe in the condition of the infallibility and faithfulness of the ancestors of prophets and messengers, but our scholars according to their Imams, the Household of Muhammad (P.B..U.H) don’t say this, and they believe absolutely that the prophets and messengers and their viceroys don’t become to existence accept from holy and faithful and infallible ancestors,  and since this is possible as well as their assumption and God is able to do it, then why not believing in it, and how dare we say about a prophet or a messenger from God to His creation or even about their viceroys that were appointed by God also, how dare we say that he is a son of a pagan or a fallible person or a wicked man, and there is more to come about this matter if God allowed that.

The Birth of Abraham (P..B.U..H.)

The Birth of Abraham (P.B.U.H.)

It is mentioned that Nimrod had an astrologer, and once he said to him (to Nimrod): I see by calculating the positions of the stars that a man will be in your land and work on changing the religion to some other religion than yours, so then Nimrod said to him: in what land shall that be? So he answered: in this land, and he is not born yet, so then Nimrod said: we must separate men and women, and so he did and the mother of Abraham was pregnant but her pregnancy was not of clear appearance, and when the time had come for her to give birth she said to her husband Terah: I want to be alone and hide, and every woman at that time used to hide whenever she gets pregnant because of the cruel rule. Nimrod appointed a woman for every pregnant wife, so whenever she gives birth to a male he gets killed, and whenever she gives birth to a female then she is safe, so mother of Abraham escaped away when it was the time for her to give birth and entered a cave far away from people’s sights and she gave birth, and she used to check him up whenever she gets the chance to, and she used to block the cave’s entrance with rocks, and God took care of him and protected him against their evils. It was mentioned that he used to grow up in one day as would someone else grow up in a month, so he stayed there in the cave for thirteen years, so when he got old that much he got out of the cave and couldn’t bear it anymore, and when his mother came he caught her clothes and said to her: I must go out and see people, and so on until he got out with her and she said to him: if the king knew about you and you are born at this time he is going to kill you, but he didn’t care and got out and then she brought him to his uncle Azar. It might be that Terah after the birth of Abraham and while he was there in the cave, died and fate judged for his mother to be in the house of Azar and a wife for him and she gave birth to children for him and he got also children from others, and only God knows.


Abraham left the cave after the sunset and darkness was all over the place, and he knew that people are worshipping idols and Azar and all the people in his house except for his mother are idolaters as well, so he hated that and refused it and denied worshipping the idols. Then he saw an apparent star in the sky and it was Venus, so he said: this is my God, but when it disappeared he said: if it was my God indeed it won’t disappear, and then said: I don’t love things that set. Then he looked to the east and saw the moon so he said: this is my God, this is bigger, but when it moved and disappeared he said: Unless my Lord guide me, I surely shall become one of the folk who are astray. Then when it was the morning time and the sun rose and he saw its glance and light all over earth, he then said: this is my God, it is bigger and greater, but when it moved and disappeared, God then made him to see the throne and the kingdoms of heavens and earth and inspired him and guided him and filled his hearth with glow and he knew that this universe has a Creator, so then he said: O my people! Lo! I am free from all that ye associate (with Him), Lo! I have turned my face toward Him Who created the heavens and the earth, as one by nature upright, and I am not of the idolaters( Surah Al-An`âm:78-79).


And when his mother brought him to her home and made a place for him between her children and his uncle Azar knew about him he said: who is that that still alive while the king kills all the males? So his mother said: this is my son and I gave birth to him at the time of so and so. Then Azar said to her: If the king knew about it he will be so mad and we’ll be not in such a high place, and Azar was in fact a man of a high place under the rule of Nimrod and was his minister, and he used to give the idols for his children to sell it. So then Abraham’s mother said: do not worry, if the king did not know about it he will stay with us and if he knew about it I will not make you to defend him, and Azar used to love Abraham so much whenever he looks at him and used to give him the idols to sell them as his children do.

It is mentioned also that Abraham (P.B.U.H.) used to tie a rope in the necks of the idols and drags them over the ground and say: who would buy what harms him and give no benefits, and used to drop them in water and ask them to talk as to mock at them and as an insult for them and for whoever worships them, so his brothers mentioned that to their father Azar and that was so great for him so he warned him and threatened him to stop that, but he did not stop so he kept him at home and didn’t let him go out. Then the people of Abraham and his relatives had a debate with him so then he said: Dispute ye with me concerning Allah when He hath guided me ?(Al-An`âm:80). They mentioned (PUT) [meaning: the Household PUT] that he was born in the first day in the month of Ðul-Hajj [the 12th month in the lunar calendar for Muslims and the month of pilgrimage], and they say that he lived for one hundred and fifty seven years and buried in his current site in Al-Khalil (Hebron) in Palestine.

Breaking The Idols and Throwing Abraham in The Fire


It is reported from the Household (P.B.U.T.) that Nimrod and all the people of his kingdom went out in a festival and Abraham hated to go out with them, so Nimrod appointed him to guard the idols house. He offered the idols food and give it to one after another and say to him: eat and talk, and when he gets no answer, and he knows that he will not get an answer and how come a non-living thing would answer him, he breaks its arms and legs with an axe until all of them are broken, then he hanged the axe over the neck of the biggest idol and it was in the middle of the place, and then when the king got back with his people and saw what happened to their idols they said: Who hath done this to our gods ? Surely it must be some evil- doer(Al-Anbiyâ’:59) Then they said: here is a boy that remembers them called Abraham and he is the son of Azar, so then they brought him with his father Azar, then Nimrod said to Azar: you betrayed me and kept this boy away, then Azar said: O my king, this is the deed of his mother and she said that she will defend for him, so then Nimrod called Abraham’s mother and asked her: what made you hide this boy until he did what he did to our gods? So then she said: O king, this is because I care about your people, he said then: and how is that? She answered: because you used to kill the kids of your people and this deed will decrease the population so I thought for myself that if it was this boy he is seeking let him kill it and leave the people alone and if he is not the enemy of the king then he would stay for us so I see now I am right and you got him and he is yours so do whatever you want to do with him and stop killing other people’s children. Then Nimrod looked at Abraham and asked: Is it thou who hast done this to our gods, O Abraham ? He said: But this, their chief hath done it. So question them, if they can speak(Al-Anbiyâ’:62-63). It is reported from Al-Sâdiq (P.B.U.H.): he (Abraham) said that their chief had done it and he did not lie because he said he had done it if only he can speak.


So then Nimrod asked his people what to do with him so they told him: burn him and make a victory for our gods if you want. Al-Sâdiq said: the king of Abraham and his folks were not wise for they said for Nimrod burn him, but the king of Moses and his folks were wise because when he (the king) asked his folks for what to do with Moses they told him to give him a chance with his brother and call every magician in the land, then Nimrod captivated Abraham and collected the woods and so when it was the day to throw him in the fire, Nimrod and his soldiers showed up and he built before that a building to see what will happen to Abraham when he is thrown in the fire and to see how the fire would burn him and the Satan came to them and showed them how to make the catapult because no one was able to approach the fire and they were buff led how to throw him into that great flame, and birds were burnt from a far because of it, so then they put Abraham onto the catapult and it is said that Azar came and slapped him and told him to get back to the religion but he did not care about it.

They mentioned that none of God’s creation, except for the human beings, wouldn’t ask God to save Abraham, so the earth said: O Lord, none on my back worships You except of him, would he be burnt! And angels said: O Lord, Your friend Abraham is getting burnt. So then, God did say: if he called for me, I will save him. And Gabriel said: O Lord, Your friend Abraham is getting burnt and You sent Your enemy to burn him. So then said God: Be silent, only a slave like you would say this because he is afraid of being late. and he is My slave, I can take him back whenever I want to, and if he called Me I would answer him. So then Abraham (P.B.U.H.) called his Lord by the words that are in the chapter of Al-Ikhlâs: O Allah (God), O The One,  O The eternally besought of all, O One that begetteth not nor was begotten, O One that there is none comparable unto Him, save me from the fire by Your mercy. The narrator said: then Gabriel met with Abraham in the air and he was put in the catapult, and said to him: do you need me O Abraham? So then Abraham answered: for you no, but for the Lord of universe yes, so he (Gabriel) gave him a ring that has an engraving saying: No other god except for Allah, Muhammad is the prophet of Allah, Allah is before my back, Allah supports me, Allah got my life. Then when Abraham wore the ring, God commanded the fire “be coolness”, so then Abraham’s teeth started to shake and chatter because of the coolness, until He said unto it “and peace for Abraham”  and then Gabriel got down and sat beside him and talking to him as if they were in a green garden. It is mentioned also that Gabriel (P.B.U.H.) brought a garment from paradise and he (Abraham) wore it and then they sat together talking. This garment is given by Abraham to Isaac, and Isaac gave it to Jacob, and Jacob gave it to Joseph and he made it in his neck and so it was with him (with Joseph) when he was thrown into the well and when he got into jail , and it is the garment that Joseph sent to his father from Egypt and made him blind no more, and this is what has been told in the public and it is transformed and narrated in different ways. Then Nimrod looked at Abraham (P.B.U.H.) and said: whoever had a god let him take a god as the one of Abraham, so then a great man that Nimrod had said: I made magic over the fire so it won’t burn him, then immediately a column of fire grew and burnt him. Then Nimrod looked at Abraham while he was sitting in a green garden in the fire with an old man talking to him, so then he said to Azar: the God of your son loves your son so much.


They mentioned also that after God’s commandment to the fire to be coolness and peace for Abraham, no fire worked on earth for three days, and it is reported from Al-Râzi that he said: scholars had different interpretations for the coolness of fire at that day in three ways, one of them is that God removed the heat that was in the fire and only the light in it remained, and the second way says that God created in the body of Abraham (P.B.U.H.) a protection against fire, as God do to the keepers of hell, and the third way says that God created a veil between Abraham and the fire and so the fire was kept away. Investigators said that the first way is the most truthful since it is apparent from God’s saying: O fire, be coolness and peace for Abraham(Al-Anbiyâ’:69), it is apparent that fire itself had been cool and so there are no protection or a veil and this is the correct opinion, and as reported from the prophet (P.B.U.H.) that when Abraham (P.B.U.H.) was thrown into fire, Gabriel (P.B.U.H.) came down with a garment from paradise and with a carpet, so he made him (Abraham) wear the garment and let him sit on the carpet and sat together talking.


In interpretations they say that after throwing Abraham into the fire by Nimrod, and after he got out of it as if nothing happened to him, Nimrod said to him then: O Abraham, who is your god? He answered: my God is the One that gives life and take it. Then said Nimrod: I give life and take it, then Abraham said to him: how come you give life and take it? Then Nimrod said: I bring two men that are to be executed, so I give mercy for one of them and release him and keep the other and kill him and so I gave life and took it. Then said Abraham to him: if you were truthful then give life again to the one you killed, then he said: leave this now, my God brings the sun from east, so bring it from west, and so Nimrod was amazed. God said: Bethink thee of him who had an argument with Abraham about his Lord, because Allah had given him the kingdom; how, when Abraham said: My Lord is He Who gives life and caused death, he answered: I give life and cause death. Abraham said: Lo! Allah caused the sun to rise in the East, so do thou cause it to come up from the West. Thus was the disbeliever abashed. And Allah guided not wrongdoing folk(Al-Baqara:258). The speech in this holy phrase was directed to our prophet (P.B.U.H.) for God’s saying “Bethink thee of him who had an argument with Abraham..etc.” And the prophet himself doesn’t know what is hidden in the future or destiny and only God knows, so He tells him what happened between Abraham and the damned Nimrod, and the one that had an argument with Abraham was Nimrod, and he was the first man to be a tyrant and called himself a god, and it has been told that this argument took place after throwing Abraham into the fire and being out of it with no harm and guided by God, and Nimrod had such an argument because of his high place and because people followed him and God gave him the time, but he rebelled and refused because of the kingdom he had and given by God, and the kingdom here is considered to be the ornaments of life and a human being would rebel when he becomes a rich, and such kingdom can be given to a faithful or a disbeliever, and Solomon ben David (P.B.U.T.) was given a kingdom and power that was nothing like them, and God never gave something similar to anyone else and he said: He said: My Lord! Forgive me and bestow on me sovereignty such as shall not belong to any after me(Sad:35), and so God gave him what shall not pass in the mind of anyone else and he is a prophet and a son of a prophet, and also He had given Nebuchadnezzar and the Pharaoh of Moses a kingdom and others a lot that were believers or disbelievers.


For the kingdom by means of owing people’s order and judgment and getting the loyalty of people that God guided, such things are not given by God except for one who God knows that they call for rightness and guidance and it is not to be except for a prophet or a viceroy or anyone faithful that God had chosen for His religion, and they know by the guidance of God what do people need in their life for religion, life matters and for the after-life. They say that when Abraham said to Nimrod that God brings the sun from the east so bring it from the west, Nimrod got surprised and couldn’t answer because of his surprise and he knew that Abraham got the rightful clue. Nimrod could have said to Abraham let your God bring it from the west but he was afraid from God’s reply to Abraham as He saved Abraham before from the fire. When Nimrod saw the miracles he knew that if he suggested that (bringing the sun from the west) Abraham would do it without a doubt and would make people believe him and in that way Nimrod would be ashamed, and God guided not the wrongdoing folks. As reported from Ibn-`Abbâs he said that God sent a mosquito to Nimrod and stung his lip, and when he tried to catch it it flied to his nose, and tried to get it out but then she got into his brain, so then God tortured him for forty nights then destroyed him.


Getting Out From Iraq To The Land of Shem

In tidings, when Abraham broke the idols and after throwing him into the fire and getting out of it with no harm, he (Nimrod) ordered for Abraham to be exiled out of the lands, and avoid him from taking his money and cattle, so then Abraham asked for judgment to be made according to their own laws and regulations. In general he argued with them by saying: if you want to take my money, then you should give me an exchange for my life that I spent in your lands, so then they went to the judge of Nimrod to make a judgment about this matter, and the judge decided that Abraham was right, so they released him and released his cattle’s and all of his money, so then Abraham and Lot got out in the direction of the land of Shem (Syria and the surroundings) approaching the position of the holy shrine in Jerusalem before it had been built by many following centuries, and he made a bed for his wife Sarah and closed it roughly for he was so jealous, and she was the daughter of his uncle Pethuel the brother of Terah ben Nahor, and she was the first to believe in him, and other things rather than this had been said as in Muruj Al-Ðahab for Al-Mas`udi, but it also mentioned as we said before that she is Abraham’s maternal cousin and she was the sister of Lot ben Haran.

So he went along far away from his home to some where else like a stranger, he did not know anyone and no one invited him to his land, so he travelled until he was out of Nimrod’s kingdom until he got into the kingdom of a Coptic man called `Urara [maybe the author used “Coptic” here as a general name for Egyptians, the coming story is similar to the one mentioned in the chapter of Genesis in Torah, but the name of the Pharaoh is not mentioned in Torah], then he passed by a tithe-gatherer that takes tithes from people passing by his lands, so he blocked the way of Abraham to take the tithes of his money and cattle’s, so the officer that was appointed from `Urârah said: open the tomb (or the palanquin which had his wife Sarah in it) to take the tithes of it, so then Abraham said: say whatever you think it is there and ask for whatever you want of gold and silver to give you the tithes of it and don’t open it. But the tithe-gatherer denied that and insisted on opening the palanquin and he did, and Abraham became so angry because he was so jealous and afraid for his wife Sarah, and when the tithe-gatherer looked at Sarah, and she was pretty, he said: who is she? and what is her relation to you? So then Abraham said: she is my wife and my cousin. Then the officer said: I won’t let you go until I tell the king about you and her. Then he sent a messenger to the king and told him everything happened, and when the tidings reached the king he ordered the palanquin to be brought to him with what it had, and so they took the palanquin and Abraham went with them and never left the palanquin, and when they reached the king, the king said: open the palanquin, then Abraham answered: my wife and my cousin is inside and I am ready to give everything I have for not opening it, but the king was not satisfied until they opened it. When they opened it and he looked into Sarah he couldn’t hold himself and extended his hand trying to touch her, and Abraham then turned his face away for his jealousy and said: O God keep his hand away from my wife and my cousin, and so his hand didn’t reach her and didn’t get back to him (it is understood from this line that his hand was paralyzed) Then said the king: your God did that to me? So said Abraham: yes, then he said: pray to him to get it back to me, and if it was back to me I will leave you alone. So then Abraham prayed to God and so his hand got back to him, but the king looked at her again and extended his hand to reach her and Abraham turned his face away and said: O God keep his hand away, and so his hand was paralyzed and couldn’t reach her, so then the king said to Abraham: your God is jealous and you are jealous as well so call your God to let my hand back to me, and if it was so I will not do it again. Then said Abraham: O God if he was truthful let it back to him, and so it was, and when the king saw that Abraham grew so great for him and made him his guest and then said to him: go to wherever you want but I have a request, and that is to allow me to give her (Sarah) a pretty Coptic maid that I have and she is intelligent and I want her to be as a servant for your wife, and so Abraham allowed that, and so the king gave her to Sarah, and she was Hagar the mother of Ishmael (P.B.U.H.).

Then Abraham got out with all what he had and the king went out with him and walked behind Abraham for his greatness but Abraham refused this and didn’t accept that the king would walk behind him and so he made him in the front and Abraham walked behind him and he said: my God ordered me to walk behind you and respect you for your highness and so then the Coptic king said: I swear that your God is Clement and Generous, and you make your religion beloved by me, and then the king said farewells to him, and then Abraham went along until he reached the upper parts of Shem’s lands and left Lot in the lower parts of them, and God did say about this: And We rescued him and Lot (and brought them) to the land which We have blessed for (all) peoples(Al-Anbiyâ’:71) and it is the lands of Shem and Palestine because God had destined them to be the homelands for prophets and the lands of their tombs after Abraham (P.B.U.H.), and then when Abraham recognized that he did not have any children from Sarah, he said to her: if you like, you can let me have Hagar as a wife, maybe God will give me a son from her and he would be as a son for us as well, so he paid the dowry for Sarah and took Hagar as a wife and she gave birth to Ishmael (P.B.U.H.), and more to come about that later on.


The Books of Abraham (P.B.U.H.) and Some of What Was Revealed By God to Him


God had revealed for Abraham twenty books as reported from the prophet (P.B.U.H.), and he (the prophet) was asked about their contents so he said: they were all proverbs and it had: O you egoist king of many troubles, I did not send you to gather earth all together, but I sent you to answer the calls of the wronged, for I do answer his calls even if he was a disbeliever, and every man of thought unless he was sick, he got three hours a day, an hour for his God, and an hour to judge himself, and an hour to think about God’s deeds to him, and one more hour for him to take what he likes by ways that God did allow,for this hour helps him to accomplish the other hours. The man of thought should live for three: to make a living, to get prepared for his after-life, or to get satisfied in ways that God allowed. Then a man asked the prophet (P.B.U.H.): and what was there in the books of Moses (P.B.U.H.)?, he (P.B.U.H.) answered: they were all examples (lessons) and they contained: I am amazed for the one who is certain of death, how come he becomes happy? And for whoever is certain of hell and fire, how come he laughs? And whoever sees this life and its fluctuations how come he is certain of safety? And for whoever that believes in destiny how come he runs after wealth and riches? And for whoever that is certain of the judgment, why he doesn’t work for that day?…etc..


Some tidings about the interpretation of God’s saying: Thus did We show Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and the earth(Al-An`âm:75) as reported from Al-Bâqir (P.B.U.H.) , a speech that has the meaning of that God gave Abraham a strength in his sight to see what is beyond heavens so he saw the Throne and what’s beyond it and saw the earth and what was beneath it, and so God did with his beloved the prophet (P.B.U.H.) and the viceroys after him from his Household (P.B.U.H.). In some other tidings that Abraham (P.B.U.H.) saw an angel so he asked: who are you? He answered: I am the angel of death, so then Abraham said to him: can you show me in what shape do you take the soul of a faithful man? Then said the angel of death: turn your face to the other way, and so did Abraham and then he looked back again at him and he saw a young man with a nice shape and beautiful clothes and with good scent, then said Abraham: if the faithful man isn’t see in his life except your shape then he had what he desires in this life, then he said to him: can you show me how your shape would be if you’re going to take the soul of a disbeliever? So he answered: you won’t bear it, but Abraham said: yes I d, and so the angel said: then turn your face away from me and so he did and looked back at him and then he saw a black man with standing hair and an awful smell with black clothes and flames with smokes going out from his mouth and nose, so when Abraham saw this he went into a coma, and then he woke up and saw the angel back again to his original shape so he said to the angel: O angel of death if the disbeliever just saw your shape he would stop doing wrongdoings in his life.


It is reported from Al-Sâdiq (P.B.U.H.) back from the prince of believers (P.B.U.H) that he said: when God wanted to take the soul of Abraham (P.B.U.H.) He sent down the angel of death and he said to him: Peace upon you Abraham, he then answered: and peace upon you O angel of death, did you come to me as an inviter or to announce my death? So he answered: but as an announcer for your death O Abraham so answer the call, then he said: O angel of death did you see a friend that makes death to his friend? So then the angel of death got back until he stood between the hands of God, the Exalted and said: O God You heard the talk of Your friend Abraham, so then God did say: O angel of death go back to him and ask him: did you ever saw a lover than don’t want to see his love? The great scholar Al-Sayid Ne`matullah Al-Jazâ’iri, the one who mentioned this story, said: inviter here is meant to be as for someone asking and giving the choices as if someone is inviting some guests, and a death announcer is meant to be as someone getting what he desires by force. So when Abraham (P.B.U.H.) knew that he has the choice, he asked for life to worship God more.

We say yes, and such thing would be done by a man like Abraham (P.B.U.H.) naturally, and it is possible that he had done such a thing as if he couldn’t imagine the situation and got afraid of moving from one world to another and there is the grave and the loneliness and judgment, did you not think about the saying of our prophet (P.B.U.H.) and his Household (P.B.U.T.): Whenever a faithful increase in his faith, the more fearful he becomes for God? There are certain tidings and speeches of certain origin and all agreed on their contents that denotes that a believer is in between fear and hope from God as the hands of a balance. Every prophet is scared to the maximum of God and at the same time he has the maximum hope and faith in His mercy. In tidings it is mentioned that when Al-Bâqir (P.B.U.H.) at the time of his death cried, and then his son, Al-Sâdiq (P.B.U.H.), said to him: O father why are you crying? So he answered him: for two things, the first is for leaving the beloved and the second is for the greatness and holiness of this situation. Then the most apparent clue for this matter, look to the pray of Abi-Hamza Al-Þumâli, and it is the pray of `Ali ben Al-Husain (P.B.U.H.). Whoever investigated the lives of prophets and viceroys and their followers he would be sure of what we’ve mentioned and I think that Abraham refused to move from this life to the after-life because the situation was so holy and great for him, and if he was to live all the age of life itself he would spend it as a worshipper and obeying God without a doubt.

Yes, Al-Husain ben `Ali (P.B.U.H.) at the day of Karbala at the time of his death and when Al-Shemer ben Ði Al-Jawshan sat over his holy chest, he (P.B.U.H.) was smiling and the halo filled his face, and he did not care about what they did to him beside raising the truth and showing the true and the false. Can you imagine how the angel of death faced him? I think he was crying as well. Shiites after his death kept saying as reported to him (P.B.U.H.):


If the religion of Muhammad won’t be fixed except by killing me


Then O swords come and take me


Yes some tidings say that Abraham made a pilgrimage to the Holy House at the end of his life, and after the pilgrimage he went back to the lands of Shem, and then the angel of death came to him to take his soul but Abraham hated death, so the angel of death got back to his Lord and said: Abraham hated death, so God then said to him: let go of Abraham, he likes to worship me. Then he (Abraham) saw an old man eating and vomiting whatever he eats, so then Abraham hated life and loved death, then he went into his home and saw a man with a good shape that he never saw something like it before, so he asked him: who are you? He answered: I am the angel of death, so then he said: O Holy Lord! Who hates your closeness and visiting you and you are in such a shape? So he answered: O friend of God, if God wanted goodness for His slave, He sends me in this shape, and if He wants evil for His slave, He sends me in another shape, and so he took his soul in the lands of Shem where his tomb lies now.


Taking Ishmael (P.B.U.H.) and His Mother Hagar to The Holy House


<>It is mentioned that Abraham used to live in the deserts of the lands of Shem, then when he was given Ishmael (P.B.U.H.) from Hagar, their matter became so heavy on Sarah and she had been sad for this since she didn’t have any children, so Abraham complaint about this to God, so then God inspired unto him and ordered him to move Ishmael and his mother away from her, so then he said: O God where to? and to what place? So He said: to My place. Then God got down Gabriel with Al-Burâq [Al-Burâq: in Islamic believes, it is a heavenly creature created of light and by which the prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) was able to travel to Jerusalem and then to heavens in one night. Tidings about this event are mentioned in the beginning of the chapter of Al-Isrâ’, which means “The Night Journey”], so it carried them with Hagar to the place of God, and Abraham used to say whenever they pass by a place with trees palms , used to say t Gabriel: O Gabriel in here? And he answers him back: go ahead, until they reached Mecca and put them in the place of the House (Kaba), so when they settled down in that place there were some trees there and so Hagar and the others sat in the shadow of one of them, and when Abraham wanted to leave Hagar said to him: O Abraham, are going to leave us in a place that has no one around nor water or plants? So then said Abraham: the One that ordered me to put you here will be enough for you, and then he left them, but before leaving that spot he turned his face towards them and said to God as it is mentioned in Quran:

Our Lord! Lo! I have settled some of my posterity in an uncultivable valley near unto Thy holy House, our Lord! that they may establish proper worship; so incline some hearts of men that they may yearn toward them, and provide Thou them with fruits in order that they may be thankful(Ibrahim:37). Then Hagar stayed with her son Ishmael (P.B.U.H.), and when it was noon time, Ishmael became thirsty and asked for water from his mother, so then Hagar wandered in the valley and called: is there anyone in the valley? Then Ishmael disappeared, then she went over Al-Safâ [Mountain’s name] and she saw a mirage in the valley and she thought it was water so she came down and approached it, so when she reached Al-Marwâ [the name of the passage in the valley] then Ishmael disappeared from her sight and then she saw a mirage in the position of Al-Safâ, and so on she did that for seven times, and on the seventh time and while she was on Al-Marwâ she looked to Ishmael (P.B.U.H.) and water appeared under his feet, so she came back to him and gathered the sand around it because it was flowing and so she tightened the flow by gathering the sand around it and that is why it is called Zamzam [Arabic: Zam = tightened, strengthened. Literature]. The tribe of Jorhom at that time were settling in `Arafât [another mountain], so when the water appeared in Mecca and the birds and the rest of animals started to dwell around it they knew that there is some water and they followed them, until then they saw a woman and a boy settled there under a tree and water appeared for both of them, so they said to Hagar: who are you and what is wrong with you and with this boy? So she said: I am the mother of the son of Abraham the friend of God and this is his son, so they said to her: do you allow us to be near you? So then she took the permission from Abraham because he used to visit them by any chance he had, so then Abraham allowed them and the tribe of Jorhom settled down near them, thus Hagar and Ishmael didn’t stay alone, and on the third time when Abraham checked them and saw many people around them he turned to be so glad for this. Then Ishmael grew up and every member of Jorhom’s tribe gave them some camels and they used to make a living by them, and then when Ishmael turned to be a man, God ordered Abraham to build the House, so he asked: O God in which spot? So He answered back: in the spot that I revealed the dome over Adam, and the dome remained there even at the time of the flood at the time of Noah (P.B.U.H.) and when the whole earth was sunk down, God uplifted this dome and so she was called the Saved House because it was saved from sinking [Saved House, in Arabic: Al-Bayt Al-`Ateeq].

Building The Holy House

When God ordered Abraham to build the House, he did not know where to make it, so then God sent Gabriel (P.B.U.H.) and he planned the position of the House, then God revealed the basis from paradise, and the stone that God revealed on Adam was whiter than snow but turned to be black when disbelievers touched it, so then Abraham built the House and Ishmael moved the stones for building from Ði-Tiwâ [seems a place name] (and in some other tales from the mount of Abi-Qobays) so he made it as high as nine cubits, then Gabriel (P.B.U.H.) guided Abraham to the position of the Stone and so he got it out and placed it in his current position as today, and he made two doors for it, one to the east and another to the west, and the door to the west is called Al-Mostajâr. When he built it and finished it all, Abraham and Ishmael made a pilgrimage, and Gabriel (P.B.U.H.) came down for them at the day of Al-Tarwiyah [meaning: day of giving water] and ordered them to give water and they carried it to `Arafât and Minâ [a place name] because there were no waters in those spots, then Abraham said what was mentioned in Quran: And when Abraham prayed: My Lord! Make this a region of security and bestow upon its people fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day, He answered: As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the doom of Fire – a hapless journey’s end!(Al-Baqarah:126).


In some tidings,  the stone that have to be thrown in pilgrimage season are counted as seven for that when Gabriel (P.B.U.H.) showed Abraham how to do the pilgrimage, the Satan appeared or him and then Gabriel (P.B.U.H.) commanded Abraham to throw at him, and so he did with seven stones (pebbles), and so he (Satan) went under the ground and so Abraham stopped. Then the Damned appeared again and Abraham threw at him another seven stones and he went back again under the ground. Then the Damned appeared for the third time and Abraham threw at him seven stones and the Damned went again under the ground. Other tidings say that after the commandments of God for Abraham and Ishmael about building the Holy House, and after they had finished it, God ordered him (Abraham) to get on one corner and call on people: O come to pilgrimage. If he had said: O people come to pilgrimage, then only human beings that were created at that time would answer his calls, but he said “O come to pilgrimage” and so people in the core of men [meaning: people that are yet not born] answered the call, and whoever answered ten times he made pilgrimages for ten times and whoever answered five times then he made pilgrimage for five times and so on. Scholars differ about the exact meaning of the previous tale and about the difference in calling in singular form and plural form, and that the calling in a singular form is more general and includes the already existent with the ones that will be existent, but plural form would include only the existent beings only. [Some lines come here with a heavy philosophical concepts that I couldn’t follow or translate, but it emphasizes that Abraham called not only existent people at that time but also beings that will be founded later on]. In other tidings, when God ordered Abraham (P.B.U.H.) to call on the people for pilgrimage, he stood upon the place and he became as high as Abi-Qubays [mount#s name] and so then he called on for pilgrimage and for that people in the cores of men and women, for women heard him until the doomsday arrival. Another tale says that at the day of `Arafah and after the sunset, Gabriel went out with Abraham and said to him: O Abraham coness your wrongdoings  and know your rituals, and for this it was called `Arafât, because of Gbariel’s saying “confess” and “know” [Arabic: confess: E`tarif (imp.), know: E`raf (imp.)], and there stayed Gabriel until the sunset (again) and then he went to Al-Mozdalifah [another spot’s name].

Some historians said that when Abraham left Ishmael and his mother Hagar in the valley where Mecca lies now, Abraham used to visit them from time to time and at the end God commanded them to build the House, and so they did and built the House and when they were finished God commanded Abraham to tell people that he built a House for worshipping God and they have to visit it to do their rituals, and Abraham with Ishmael asked God then to show them how to do the rituals and so He sent Gabriel (P.B.U.H.) and he taught them what to do. They say that after building the Holy House in Mecca, no buildings were built except before Islam by one hundred and fifty years in the second century before Islam and then the action of building took place and that was at the time of Qosay ben Kilâb, the fourth grandfather for the prophet (P.B.U.H.), and the first thing he built was Dâr Al-Nadwâ for Quraysh [Quraysh is the main tribe that lived in Mecca and for which the prophet (P.B.U.H.) belongs, the buildings name suggests that it was like a parliament place], and then they started building houses around the Holy House and before it was an empty space with no plants or buildings, and they said that nothing is planted there except for the desert plants that have no fruit.


Some Sentences About Sarah The Wife of Abraham As Told By Historians


Some historians gave some pictures about Abraham and his wife Sarah and what happened between her and Hagar with her son Ishmael (PUT) and about the reasons for Hagar and her son Ishmael travelling to Fârân (Paran) as in Torah, and Paran is a name given to some locations of which Mecca’s mounts are one of them, and lot of these are not suitable for such a high place of prophecy and unjust, and even can not be committed by a conscious man and some of them are not right at all, but it has lot of exaggeration as mentioned in the book of Genesis in Torah, and most of such pictures are taken from Jews and it has such matters that they report to Sarah the wife of Abraham (P.B.U.H.) but it opposes the dignity and nobleness, and there is no doubt that for Muslims, Sarah is considered one of the best of women, and she is attached to the degree of infallibility, and for the prophet and his Household (P.B.U.T.) she occupies a high level, and for them she is like Eve the mother of human beings and like Mary the daughter of Amram (P.B.U.T.), so she is a lady of her time and faithful souls do not accept to report about her and other women untrue things. They mentioned that when Sarah saw the son of Hagar that she gave birth to from Abraham, she said then to Abraham: banish this maid and her son for this maid’s son will not inherit with my son Isaac, and they said: then God said to Abraham: Whatever Sarah says do. They say also: So Abraham went in the early morning and took with him bread and water and gave them to Hagar then she put them on her shoulder and her son with her, then he banished her with her son and she went along in the deserts lost and did not know where to go. They said a lot of such tidings and legends, but what we can say for the press that printed such lies and what we can say for its owner, but no strength except by God, the Exalted.


Yes, in Al-Bukhâri [Hadith collection made by Al-Bukhâri after the prophet’s death] as reported by Ibn `Abbâs that the prophet (P.B.U.H.) said in a speech that minds can accept and souls can refuge in, and some of it is that Abraham brought her (Hagar) with her son Ishmael and he was still an infant and he (Abraham) placed them near by the House over the location of Zamzam, and at that time there were no one in Mecca nor water, so he just put them there and gave them dates and water, then Abraham went back from where he came then the mother of Ishmael followed him and said: O Abraham where are you going and leaving us in this valley with no one alive or anything? She said that many times but he did not look at her, then she asked: God ordered you to do this? He said: yes, then she said: then we are not lost. Then she got back and Abraham went along until he reached a position that they can’t see him, he faced the House and prayed with these words and raised his hands up to heaven and said: Our Lord! Lo! I have settled some of my posterity in an uncultivable valley near unto Thy holy House..etc.(Ibrâhim:37), then the mother of Ishmael started breast feeding for Ishmael and drink of that water until it was all finished and she got thirsty and also her son and then she looked at him and saw him crooked so she hated that view and went along and she found Al-Safâ so she went to the top and looked at the valley that she might find someone but she did not, so she went down into the valley with so much tiredness until she passed the valley and came to Al-Marwâ and she went on top of it looking for someone, but she did not find anyone, and so she did that for seven times. He (Al-Bukhâari) said: said Ibn `Abbâs: the prophet (P.B.U.H.) said: that is why people now walk between them for seven times [during the pilgrimage] then went she went to Al-Marwâ she heard a sound and she said: Shh! She then paid attention and she heard it clearly then she said: You’ve been heard, do you have any aid? Then she found an angel searching in the location of Zamzam by his feet (or by his wing) until the water appeared, so she started gathering the water. He (Al-Bukhâri) said: said Ibn `Abbâs: the prophet (P.B.U.H.) said: Mercy be upon the mother of Ishmael, if she did not take of the water then Zamzam would be a drying-out spring, then the angel said to her: do not be afraid of the place, here is the House of God which will be built by this boy and his father, and God will never make his people astray, and the speech about this matter is long and we’ve just taken what is in front of you, and it is close to rightness, and not so different from what Imamism suppose, notice and only God knows. In the same speech it is mentioned: Until Jorhom tribe came and lived with them for ages, and it is as an answer from God to Abraham, and so God made lot of people go to them like Jorhom and the Giants (?), and when Ishmael grew up and married from them and been an owner for lot of cattle’s and riches, then after that he built the House with his holy hands with his father Abraham (P.B.U.T.), then the mother of Ishmael died (P.B.U.H.) and he son buried her beside the Holy House and it is the place called now Hajar Ismâ`eel [meaning: The stone of Ishmael], and after his death he was buried also there beside his mother, and this is the most probable we could find by ways we’ve mentioned afore, and this is the most famous for them [I guess he means by “them” Sunni people] and it is the most suitable for their high level (Abraham and his Household), and only God knows what was hidden.


Chapters and Phrases That Mentioned Abraham (P.B.U.H.)

 

Abraham (PUH) was mentioned in twenty five chapters in holy Quran: Al-Baqarah, Âl-`Imrân, Al-Nisâ’, Al-An`âm, Al-Tawbah, Hud, Yusuf, Ibrâhim, Al-Hijr, Al-Nahal, Mariam, Al-Anbiyâ’, Al-Haj, Al-Shu`arâ’, Al-`Ankabut, Al-Ahzâb, Al-Sâffât, Sâd, Al-Shurâ, Al-Zokhrof, Al-Ðâriyât, Al-Najm, Al-Hadeed, Al-Momtahanah, Al-A`lâ. In the chapter of Al-Baqarah, the Exalted says: And when Abraham and Ishmael were raising the foundations of the House, (Abraham prayed): Our Lord! Accept from us (this duty). Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Hearer, the Knower. Our Lord! And make us submissive unto Thee and of our seed a nation submissive unto Thee, and show us our ways of worship, and relent toward us. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Relenting, the Merciful(Al-Baqarah:127-128) In the chapter of Âl-`Imrân: Lo! the first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Mecca, a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples(Âl-`Imrân:96). In the chapter of Ibrâhim: And when Abraham said: My Lord! Make safe this territory, and preserve me and my sons from serving idols(Ibrâhim:35). In the chapter of Al-Haj:  And (remember) when We prepared for Abraham the place of the (holy) House, saying: Ascribe thou no thing as partner unto Me, and purify My House for those who make the round (thereof) and those who stand and those who bow and make prostration(Al-Haj:26), so follow (read)  and notice  (think).


We’ve pointed out that the story of Abraham (P.B.U.H.) is connected to other stories like the story of Lot, and the story of his son Ishmael and the story of his son Isaac, and we’ve mentioned that Lot was his maternal cousin and also  his nephew and they were in the same time  sequence, and Lot believed in his uncle Abraham and so he was calling people to his religion. The Exalted said: And Lot believed him, and said: Lo! I am a fugitive unto my Lord(Al-`Ankabut:26). They say that Ishmael was born when Abraham was eighty six years old, and Abraham lived for one hundred and seventy five years, while Isaac was born  while Abraham was  one hundred years old and his mother is Sarah the maternal cousin of Abraham.


They say that Abraham (P.B.U.H) got another six children from other woman other than Sarah and Hagar, but Quran did not mention apparently except Ishmael and Isaac. Torah mentioned that Abraham married a woman called Keturah [Arabic: Qaturah] and she gave birth for six children for him, and it mentioned their names but there is no need to mention them now because it has no effects. In Muruj Al-Ðahab for Al-Mas`udi he said: After Sarah’s death, Abraham married Qanturâ’ [just another variation of the name] and he had six children from her and they are Marq, Nafas, Madan, Midian, Sinân and Sereh [Hebrew: Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, Shuah].

Lot was mentioned in fourteen chapters in holy Quran: Al-An`âm, Al-A`râf, Hud, Al-Hijr, AL-Anbiyâ’, Al-Haj, Al-Shu`arâ’, Al-Naml, Al-`Ankabut, Al-Sâffât, Sâd, Al-Qamar, Al-Tahreem. Isaac was mentioned in eight chapters: Al-Baqarah, Âl-`Imrân, Al-Nisâ’, Al-An`âm, Ibrâhim, Mariam, Al-Anbiyâ’, Sâd. Their stories are mentioned in quran either in details or in brief, sometimes mentioning only some of their matters, and in some others more than that, and most of the prophets and viceroys are mentioned in that way. They mentioned that Ishmael lived for one hundred and thirty seven years, and we’ve mentioned that he died in Mecca and been buried there in the place that is known as Hajar Isma`eel, that is the one located near by the Holy house, with his mother, and this is the most popular.

It is mentioned that Ishmael had twelve sons, and some of them are: Hadâr, Tayyim, Mibsâm, Dawmah, Qidmah and Qaydâr, and they are mentioned in Genesis in Torah [The full list of names in Torah is: Nebaioth, Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Temah, Jetur, Naphish, Kedemah], and they mentioned that all of them started tribes of their own, and only God knows. Until now we did not find a specific way of how Abraham died and Quran did not mention how, but Torah mentioned that. In summary, Abraham (P.B.U.H.) lived for one hundred and seventy five years. In Muruj Al-Ðahab for Al-Mas`udi: Abraham died in the lands of Shem, and his age was at that time one hundred and ninety five years, and God revealed upon him ten books. When he died, his sons Isaac and Ishmael in the cave of Al-Makfeelah in the field of `Afroon ben Sarsar Al-Hashi, and there Sarah was buried before him, and it is the place of the monument of Al-Khaleel in Jirun and now it is called the city of Al-Khaleel (Hebron), and its old name was the village of Arbo` as it is mentioned in the tales of Abul-Wahâb Al-Najjâr.


The Trial of Abraham (P.B.U.H.) to Slay His Son Ishmael (P.B.U.H.)


In the chapter of Al-Sâffât there are some phrases that talk about Abraham (P.U.H.) and his prays to his Lord and his requests for guidance and the faithful descendants. Then God answered his calls and prays and gave him what he desired and gave him a faithful servant (son) but He put him under the test to show people how sincere he is to his Creator, the Exalted said: So We gave him tidings of a gentle son. And when (his son) was old enough to walk with him, (Abraham) said: O my dear son, I have seen in a dream that I must sacrifice thee. So look, what thinks thou ? He said: O my father! Do that which thou art commanded. Allah willing, thou shalt find me of the steadfast (Al-Sâffât:101-102). So the gentle son had nothing but to obey with happiness and sincere desire the commandments of God, and His messenger.


We have no doubt that everything a prophet, a messenger, or a viceroy would do or avoid is decided by God, and his deeds are done only by what is allowed and what gives benefits, however people liked it or not. Then, the duties that are assigned by God for people are not transferred except by prophets of human beings, and so for this infallibility is granted for them. We’ve pointed out before that a prophet or a messenger and their viceroys must be described with the highest of manners and so they should not be asked or opposed for what they are doing. For this, Ishmael did not refuse or deny what his father asked him for his manners and infallibility and he knew what would happen and said to his father: O my father! Do that which thou art commanded. Allah willing, thou shalt find me of the steadfast.When Abraham was about to do what he was commanded, and Ishmael had no opposition, and God knows their faith and their belief, and God then told them that it was His command to do so as to test them and gave them a ransom, and the Exalted said: We called unto him: O Abraham! Thou hast already fulfilled the vision. Lo! thus do We reward the good.Lo! that verily was a clear test.Then We ransomed him with a tremendous victim(Al-Sâffât:104-107).


Scholars differed in the one that had been ransomed for , some said it is Isaac ben Abraham, and this opinion is favored by many Muslim scholars, while Imamate scholars agreed that  the one ransomed for was  Ishmael ben Abraham (P.U.T.). Al-Mas`udi said: people  argued about who was to be ransomed for , some said he is Isaac and others say he is Ishmael , and if the commandments took place in the land of Hijâz, then Ishmael is the one because Isaac did not go to Hijâz before, but if the commandment took place in  the lands of Shem, then Isaac is the one, because Ishmael did not go the lands of Shem after getting out of it. We say that tidings from the Household (P.B.U.T.) been reported that their grandfather the prophet (P.B.U.H.) said: I am the son of the two ransomed for, and they interpret this saying by saying that these two are his father `Abdullah ben `Abd Al-Muttalib, and his grand grandfather Ishmael (P.B.U.H.), and they mentioned other things about their details.

Maybe the source of such debate is that  Quran did not mention the name of the one that was ransomed for, but it is obvious for  anyone that meditated in the holy phrases from the chapter of Al-Sâffât that he is Ishmael (P.U.H.) by clues that are so clear and no way to interpret them, go through  their order and you will get the exact situation. After telling the story of the event and God’s rewards to Abraham by saying: Lo! he is one of Our believing slaves(Al-Sâffât:111), then after that comes the happy tidings to Abraham from God about Isaac and letting him to be a faithful prophet later on, so God said: And we gave him tidings of the birth of Isaac, a prophet of the righteous. And We blessed him and Isaac. And of their seed are some who do good, and some who plainly wrong themselves(Al-Sâffât:112-113). Then the tidings about Isaac came after telling the story of the dream of Abraham, and this is a great clue for that the son mentioned is not Isaac, because telling the name of Isaac gives an obvious clue that Isaac and the one that was ransomed for are different apparently.


Saying “And we gave him tidings of the birth of Isaac” and it is connected by “and” to the person in the previous story, then for sure it is not Isaac and it is Ishmael without a doubt. Abdul Wahâb in his tales said: The main character in this story for Jews in Torah is Isaac, then he said: and I think that the name of Isaac was put in(by them) between the lines of the story for they are cautious and careful to make their grandfather is the one that gave his life for God since his childhood, then he said: and my clue that the one who sacrificed himself for God is Ishmael is derived from Torah itself when it comes to mention that the child is the only child for Abraham that he has no one else except him and it is a clue for Abraham’s ultimate faith in God, so much that he gave his only child to scarify with, but if we considered Isaac we see that he was never alone because he was born and Ishmael was fourteen years old as it is mentioned in Torah itself also and Ishmael stayed until the death of his father and he was near him when he died and buried him. We say that this is a strong prove and the truth is what had been said (by Abdul-Wahâb) and he has many correct opinions.

They say that when he was to be sacrificed with, he was thirteen years old and it is the age of an adult, and he had became able to do what his father can do and he had to help him and work for God and worship Him, and he reached the ultimate level of thought and sense, so this is why he obeyed the commandment of God with his father. When his father laid him on the ground on his side to slay him and God knew how sincere they are, and both of them decided to and showed the deed in public, and when they reached the level of doing, God showed the secret for what they were commanded to do so, and that He did not desire the deed itself but it is a test and thus God gave the ransom, so God said “Then We ransomed him with a tremendous victim” and they say it was a great ram, and as reported by Ibn `Abbâs, it is the same ram that God accepted from Abel, and for saying “tremendous victim” it is because it (the ram) grazed in paradise for forty years. From the interpretations of `Ali ben Ibrâhim in a long speech attributed to Al-Sâdiq (P.U.H.) which included that when Ishmael gave himself to be sacrificed with and when Abraham wanted to slay him, and old man came and said: O Abraham, what do you want from this boy? He answered: I want to slay him, so he said: O God, a boy that never did wrong to God, so said Abraham: God ordered me to do so, so he answered: God denies this but it is something from Satan, then said Abraham: woe unto you! The One who made me reach this high level ordered me to do so, then the old man said: O Abraham you are a great man and people follow you and if you killed your son now they will follow you by killing their children, but he did not answer him and he asked his son about slaying him, and when all surrounded to the commandments of God, the boy said: O father, tie me and cover my face, so then said Abraham: O son, the tie and the slay? No I sweat that I will not do them to you, then he laid him and put the knife over his neck and lifted his head to the sky and ran the knife over his neck, but Gabriel flipped the knife and pulled the great ram and made him in the place of the boy, then he (Abraham) was called from the side of the mosque “Thou hast already fulfilled the vision. Lo! thus do We reward the good.”


It is mentioned also that he said to his father: slay me while i am prostrating so you won’t see my face and have mercy on me, it is also mentioned that he said: tie me tightly father so I won’t become nervous and keep your clothes away from me so that my blood shall not reach them and then my mother would see it and sharpen your knife and run it fast on my neck to make it easier for me because death is hard, then Abraham said: What a help you are for God’s commandment. In some tidings it is included that God inspired unto Abraham and He knows what is in the mind afore: what creation is beloved to you more than anything else? He answered: Your beloved Muhammad, for You did not create a creation that is more beloved to me than him, so god said then: is he beloved more than yourself? So said Abraham: he is beloved more than myself, then God said: are his children beloved to you more than your own children? He said: his children are, so God said then: is killing his children by their enemies more hurtful to your heart or killing your own son for My commandments? He answered: It is killing his children by their enemies that is more hurtful to my heart, then God said: O Abraham, there will be a group that claim to be followers for Muhammad, they will kill Al-Husain after him for no rights and they will slay him as for slaying a ram and thus they will deserve My anger, then Abraham got shocked and so sad and started crying. There are many tales and speeches about this matter but we did not come to mention them for it might be so boring.

There are also some tidings that mention the prophets’ stops in Karbala before the massacre and their passing through the location of death of Al-Husain ben `Ali and the son of Fâtima the daughter of the prophet (P.B.U.T.), and their crying for him after telling them about his trouble and the massacre by Gabriel (P.B.U.H.). Such tidings were told by Gabriel to every messenger and prophet since the time of Adam (P.B.U.H.) until the time of Jesus ben Mary (P.B.U.H.) and all of them used to cry and have pains for it. [some lines come here but add nothing to the matter and complicated somehow to translate].


A Completion With The Ancestry of The Prophet (P.U.H.)


We’ve pointed out before that it is true what the prophet said about himself “I am the son of the two whom ransomed for” and it is interpreted by trustful companions for the prophet (P.B.U.H.) and by his Household (PUT) that it points out to his fathers `Abdullah ben `Bd Al-Muttalib and Ishmael ben Abraham (PUT), and one of the tidings about this matter is what is attributed to Al-Ridhâ (P.U.H.) after asking him about this saying, he said: meaning he (the prophet) is the son of Ishmael ben Abraham and `Abdullah ben `Abd Al-Muttalib, and for Ishmael he is the son that was mentioned in Quran, and when he was about to be slain God sent a ransom for him which I was a great ram, grey in color, [some description here I could not understand] and used to live before that in paradise for forty years and it did not get out of a female, and everything that is scarified with in Minâ until this very day [in pilgrimage] is for Ishmael until the doomsday. [another description follow which I can not understand fully].


Then after that he (P.B.U.H.) mentioned the story of `Abdullah ben `Abd Al-Muttalib (P.U.H.)..etc. So, no doubt that Ishmael ben Abraham is a father for the prophet (P.B.U.H.) and his Household (P.B.U.T), and if Ishmael was slain then all of this holy tree (chain) would have been lost, and they are the secret of existence  and the reason for finding this creation, No doubt that the prophet (P.B.U.H.) and his Household (P.B.U.T.) after him are the leaders of this creation and better than prophets and messengers before them and the rest of angels that are close to God, so peace unto them and God’s blessings as well. The great historian and owner of Muruj Al-Ðahab, Al-Mas`udi, mentioned the ancestry for the prophet (P.B.U.H.) that is connected to Ishmael ben Abraham (P.B.U.H.) when he started talking about his conditions concerning his birth, sending as a prophet, his traveling to Medina and his death, and he said: He is Muhammad ben `Abdullah ben `Abd Al-Muttalib ben Hâshim ben `Abd Manâf ben Qosay ben Kilâb ben Morrah ben Lu’ay ben Ghâlib ben Fahr ben Mâlik ben Al-Nadhor, ben Kanânah ben Khozaymah ben Modrakah ben Aliâs ben Modhar ben Nizâr ben Mo`ad ben `Adnân ben Od ben Adad ben Nahor ben Ya`ur ben Ya`rub ben Yashjob ben Nâbit (Nabioth) ben Ishmael ben Abraham ben Terah. Then he continued counting his fathers until reaching Shem ben Noah and then reaching Seth ben Adam (P.B.U.T.) and we’ve mentioned that Ishmael had twelve sons as mentioned in Torah and Torah mentioned their names and mentioned that all of them were tribal heads.

What is mentioned about the ancestry of `Adnân is agreeable by all and some tidings about its rightness been told, but the names coming after `Adnân are controversial, and for this they (the Household) mentioned that their grandfather the prophet (P.B.U.H.) used to name his fathers until `Adnân then he stops and says: lied the ancestry foretellers. There is no doubt that the prophet and his Household (P.B.U.T.) know better their ancestors and for this they emphasized on their connection with Ishmael ben Abraham, but because of the many differences in the spelling of many names that fall between the two names of the grandfathers (Ishmael and `Adnân) and because of the hardness of same names they usually stop the chain, and it is reported to them that they ordered not to say their ancestry up to Ishmael (P.B.U.H.), and this is true as witnessed for there is another chain mentioned in books which has different names and length as well. [then comes lines about the second chain, which emphasizes only on the different names].

[A whole paragraph here that just emphasizes that telling the ancestry of the prophet (P.B.U.H.) should be ended up at `Adnân because of the hardness of names and the different length been told for chains. Not translated because of time consuming matter for nothing new]

What made me talk about such a matter before its time is the excessive need for it, and we’ve mentioned that Ishmael (P.B.U.H.) had twelve sons, and it is known that the prophet (P.B.U.H.) is connected  to him, and we would like to know by which descendants he is connected to Ishmael , and from the previous discussions we see that one form says that his grandfather is Þâbit and three other forms agree that his grandfather was Faydar ben Ishmael ben Abraham (P.B.U.T.), and both of the forms are not exactly mentioned in Torah, but the second one which is Faydar is close somehow to the spelling of Qaydâr and maybe this is the truth, but maybe some letters change or added because of the long time period since that time and because of many people carried such tidings or it might be just because of printing mistakes.

But Al-Mas`udi in Muruj Al-Ðahab, when he came to mention the conditions of Ishmael ben Abraham (P.B.U,H,), he mentioned a quite useful sentence for this occasion, so he said:  Then Ishmael took care of the House after the death of his father Abraham, and God made him a prophet and send him to the giants (?) and to the tribes of Yemen and he tried to ban them from worshipping idols but only few did follow him, and Ishmael had twelve children and they are: Fâ’iþ, Qaydâr, Erbel, Meem, Masma`, Duma, Dawâm, Meeshâ, Hadâd, Heem, Qaturâ and Mâsh [compare with the list mentioned in the 9th section, this list mentioned here is more closer to the one in Torah]. The commandment of Abraham was transformed to Ishmael after his death [meaning: Ishmael was the viceroy of his father], and Ishmael transferred it to his brother Isaac, and some said to his son Qaydâr ben Ishmael. Ishmael was one hundred and thirty seven years old when he died and been buried in the Holy Mosque in the position that was kept for the black stone, and the House conditions were took care of by Fâ’iþ ben Ishmael (P.B.U.H.) and did as his father used to do, and even some say that he was the viceroy of his father Ishmael (P.B.U.H.). I say, maybe most of them depend on what is mentioned in Torah because it was the first, and if it was right as it is was revealed on the heart of Moses ben Am ram (P.B.U.H.) then why not following it since it is clearly and good clue, and an investigation about it and about its people later on if God desired so, and to God be the words of thanks and prays over His beloved the Chosen and his Household, and over the rest of prophets and messengers.

The Holy Prophet Ishmael Peace be upon him

        basmala_yellow

{54} And mention in the Book (the Qur’An) IsmA’il (Ishmael). Verily! He was true to what he promised, and he was a Messenger, (and) a Prophet {55} And he used to enjoin on his family and his people As-Salât (the prayers) and the ZakAt, and his Lord was pleased with him.

{ Quran 19:54,55 }

One day, Ibrahim “Abraham”woke up and asked his wife Hajar to get her son and prepare for a long journey. In a few days Ibrahim started out with his wife Hajar and their son Isma’il. The child was still nursing and not yet weaned.

Ibrahim walked through cultivated land, desert, and mountains until he reached the desert of the Arabian Peninsula and came to an uncultivated valley having no fruit, no trees, no food, no water. The valley had no sign of life. After Ibrahim had helped his wife and child to dismount, he left them with a small amount of food and water which was hardly enough for 2 days. He turned around and walked away. He wife hurried after him asking: “Where are you going Ibrahim, leaving us in this barren valley?”

Ibrahim did not answer her, but continued walking. She repeated what she had said, but he remained silent. Finally she understood that he was not acting on his own initiative. she realized that Allah had commanded him to do this. She asked him : “Did Allah command you to do so?” He replied: “Yes.” Then his great wife said: “We are not going to be lost, since Allah Who has commanded you is with us.”

Ibrahim invoked Almighty Allah thus: “O Our Lord! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in a valley with no cultivation, by Your Sacred House (the Ka’ba at Mecca); in order, O our Lord, that they may offer prayers perfectly (Iqamat as salat) so fill some hearts among men with love towards them, and O Allah provide them with fruits so that they may give thanks. O our Lord! Certainly, You know what we conceal and what we reveal. Nothing on the earth or in the heavens is hidden from Allah.” (14:37-38)

Ibn Abbas narrated: “The first lady to use a girdle was the mother of Isma’il. she used a girdle so that she might hide her tracks from Sarah (by dragging it). Ibrahim brought her and her son Isma’il while she was suckling him to a place near the Kaba under a tree on the spot of ZamZam at the highest place in the mosque. During those days there was nobody in Mecca, nor was there any water so he made them sit over there and placed near them a leather bag containing some dates and a small water skin containing some water and set out homeward. Isma’il’s mother followed him saying: “O Ibrahim! Where are you going, leaving us in this valley where there is no person whose company we may enjoy, nor is there anything to enjoy?” she repeated that to him many times, but he did not look back at her. Then she asked him : “Has Allah ordered you to do so?” He said: “Yes.” She then said: “Then HE will not neglect us,” and returned while Ibrahim proceeded onwards. On reaching the Thaniya where they could not see him, he faced the Kaba and raising both hands, invoked Allah saying the following prayers: “O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring dwell in a valley without cultivation, by Your Sacred House (Kaba at Mecca) in order, O our Lord that they may offer prayer perfectly. So fill some hearts among men with love towards them, and O Allah provide them with fruits so that they may give thanks.” (14:37)

Ibn Abbas’s narration continued; “Isma’il’s mother went on suckling Isma’il and drinking from the water (she had) When the water in the water skin had been used up, she became thirsty and her child also became thirsty, She started looking at him (Isma’il) tossing in agony. She left him, for she could not endure looking at him, and found that the mountain of As-Safa was the nearest mountain to her on that land. she too on it and started looking at the valley keenly so that she might see somebody, but she could not see anybody. Then she descended for As Safa and when she reached the valley, she tucked up her robe and ran in the valley like a person in distress and trouble till she crossed the valley and reached the mountain of Al Marwa. There she stood and started looking expecting to see somebody, but she could not see anybody. she repeated that running between Safa And Marwa seven times.”

The prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “This is the source of the tradition of the Sa’y (rituals of the hajj, pilgrimage) the going of people between them (As-Safa and Al-Marwa). When she reached Al Marwa (for the last time) she heard a voice and she asked herself to be quiet and listened attentively. She heard the voice again and said: “O whoever you maybe! You have made me hear your voice; have you got something to help me?” And behold! She saw an angel at the place of Zam zam, digging the earth with his heel (or his wing) till water flowed from that place. She started to make something like a basin around it, using her hand in this way, and started filling her water skin with water with her hands and the water was flowing out water she had scooped some of it.”

The Prophet (pbuh) added: “May Allah bestow mercy on Isma’il’s mother! Had she let the zam-zam flow without trying to control it, or had she not scooped from that water to fill her water skin, Zam zam would have been a stream flowing on the surface of the earth.”

The Prophet (pbuh) continued: “Then she drank water and suckled her child. The angel said to her: “Don’t be afraid of being neglected, for this is the House of Allah which will be built by this boy and his father, and Allah never neglects His people.” The House (Kaba) at that time was on a high place resembling a hillock, and when torrents came, they flowed to its right and left.

“She lived in that way till some people from the tribe of Jurhum or a family from Jurhum passed by her and her child as they (the Jurhum people) were coming through the way of Kada. they landed in the lower part of Mecca where they saw a bird that had the habit of flying around water and not leaving it. they said: “this bird must be flying around water, though we know that there is no water in this valley.” They sent one or two messengers who discovered the source of water and returned to inform them of the water. SO they all came towards the water. Isma’il’s mother was sitting near the water. They asked her: “Do you allow us to stay with you?” She replied: “Yes, but you will have no right to possess the water.” They agreed to that. Isma’il’s mother was pleased with the whole situation, as she used to love to enjoy the company of the people, so they settled there, and later on they sent for their families who came and settled with them so that some families became permanent residents there. The child (Isma’il) grew up and learned Arabic from them and (his virtues) caused them to love and admire him as he grew up and when he reached the age of puberty they made him marry a woman from amongst them.”

The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) continued: “After Isma’il’s mother had died, Ibrahim came after Isma’il’s marriage in order to see his family that he had left before but he did not find Isma’il there. When he asked Isma’il’s wife about him, she replied: “He has gone in search of livelihood.” Then he asked her about their way of living and their condition, and she replied, “We are living in misery; we are living in hardship and destitution,’ complaining to him. He said: “When your husband returns, convey my salutations to him and tell him to change the threshold of the gate (of his house).’

“When Isma’il came, he seemed to have felt something unusual, so he asked his wife: ‘Has anyone visited you?’ she replied, ‘Yes, an old man of such and such description came and asked me about you and I informed him and he asked about our state of living and I told him that we were living in a hardship and poverty.’ On that Isma’il said: ‘Did he advise you anything?’ She said: ‘Yes he told me to convey his salutation to you and to tell you to change the threshold of your gate.’ Isma’il said: ‘It was my father and he has ordered me to divorce you. Go back to your family.’ so, Isma’il divorced her and married another woman from among them (Jurhum).

“Then Ibrahim stayed away from them for a period as long as Allah wished and called on them again but did not find Isma’il. So he came to Isma’il’s wife and asked her about Isma’il. She said: ‘he has gone in sof our livelihood.’ Ibrahim asked her; ‘how are you getting on?’ asking her about their sustenance and living. she replied: ‘we are prosperous and well off (we have everything in abundance).’ then she thanked Allah. Ibrahim said: ‘What kind of food do you eat?’ she said: ‘meat.’ he said: ‘what do you drink?’ she said: ‘water.’ he said: ‘O Allah! bless their meat and water.””

The Prophet (p b u h ) added: “At that time they did not have grain, and if they had grain he would have also invoked Allah to bless it. If somebody has only these two things as his sustenance, his health and disposition will be badly affected unless he lives in Mecca.”

The Prophet (P b u h ) continued: “Then Ibrahim said to Isma’il’s wife: ‘When your husband comes give my regards to him and tell him that he should keep firm the threshold of his gate.’ When Isma’il came back he asked his wife, ‘did anyone call no you?’ she replied: ‘yes, a good looking old man came to me,’ so she praised him and added: ‘He asked about you and I informed him that we were in a good condition.’ Isma’il asked her:’ did he give you any piece of advice?’ she said; ‘yes, he told me to give his regards to you and ordered that you should keep firm the threshold of your gate.’ on that Isma’il said: ‘It was my father, and you are the threshold of the gate. He has ordered me to keep you with me.’

Then Ibrahim stayed away from them for a period as long as Allah wished and called on them afterwards. He saw Isma’il under a tree near Zam Zam, sharpening his arrows. When he saw Ibrahim, he rose up to welcome him (and they greeted each other as a father does with his son or a son does with his father). Ibrahim said: ‘O Isma’il! Allah has give me an order.’ Isma’il said: ‘Do what your Lord has ordered you to do.’ Ibrahim asked:’Will you help me?’ Isma’il said: ‘I will help you.’ Ibrahim said: ‘Allah has ordered me to build a house here,’ pointing to a hillock higher than the land surrounding it.

“Then they raised the foundations of the House (the Kaba). Isma’il brought the stones while Ibrahim built and when the walls became high Isma’il brought this stone and put it for Ibrahim who stood over it and carried on building. While Isma’il was handing him the stones, and both of them were saying: Our Lord! Accept this service from us, verily, You are the All Hearer, the All Knower.” (2:127 Quran)

the Prophet (P b u h ) added: “Then both of them went on building and going round the Kaba saying O our Lord! Accept this service from us, verily, You are the All Hearer, the All Knower.”; (Sahih Al-Bukhari).

Ibn Abbas narrated a slightly different version: “When Ibrahim had differences with his wife (because of her jealousy of Hajar, Isma’il’s mother), he took Isma’il and his mother and went away.

They had a water skin with them containing some water. Isma’il’s mother used to drink water from the water skin so that her milk would increase for her child. When Ibrahim reached Mecca, he made her sit under a tree and afterwards returned home. Isma’il’s mother followed him and when they reached Kada, she called him from behind: ‘O Ibrahim! To whom are you leaving us?’ He replied: ‘(I am leaving you) to Allah’s care.’ she said: ‘I am satisfied to be with Allah.’ She returned to her place and started drinking water from the water skin and her milk increased for her child.

“When the water had all been used up, she said to herself: ‘I had better go and look so that I may see somebody.’ she ascended As-Safa mountain and looked hoping to see somebody but in vain. When she came down to the valley, she ran till she reached Al Marwa Mountain. She ran to and for (between the two mountains) many times. Then she said to herself; ‘I had better go and see the state of the child.’ she went and found it in a state of one on the point of dying. She could not endure to watch it dying and said to herself: ‘If I go and look I may find somebody.’ she went and ascended al-Safa mountain and looked for a long while but could not find anybody. thus she completed seven rounds of running between As-Safa and Al-Marwa. Again she said to herself: ‘I had better go back and see the state of the child.’ but suddenly she heard a voice, and she said to that strange voice. ‘help us if you can offer any help.’ lo! it was Gabriel (who had made the voice) Gabriel hit the earth with his heel like this (Ibn Abbas hit the earth with his heel to illustrate it), and so the water gushed out. Isma’il’s mother was astonished and started digging.”

Abu Al Qasim, the Prophet (P b u h ) said: “If she had left the water, (flow naturally, without her intervention, ) it would have been flowing on the surface of the earth.”

Ibn Abbas continued narrating: “Isma’il’s mother started drinking from the water, and her milk increased for her child. Afterwards some people of the tribe of Hurhum saw some birds while passing through the bottom of the valley and that astonished them. They said: “birds can only be found at a place where there is water.” They sent a messenger who searched the place and found the water and returned to inform them about it. Then they all went to her and said: “O Isma’il’s mother! Will you allow us to be with you (or dwell with you)?” Then they stayed there.

“Later on her boy reached the age of puberty and married a lady from them. Then an idea occurred to Ibrahim, which he disclosed to his wife (sarah). ‘I want to call on my dependents I left at Mecca.’ When he went there he greeted Isma’il’s wife and said: ‘where is Isma’il?’ She replied: ‘He has gone out hunting.’ Ibrahim said to her: ‘When he comes, tell him to change the threshold of his gate.’ When Isma’il came she told him the same and whereupon Isma’il said to her: ‘you are the threshold so go to your family (you are divorced).’

“Again Ibrahim thought of visiting his dependents whom he had left at Mecca, and told his wife (Sarah) of his intentions. Ibrahim came to Isma’il’s house and asked: ‘Where is Isma’il?’ Isma’il’s wife replied: ‘He has gone out hunting,’ and added: ‘will you stay for some time and have something to eat and drink?’ Ibrahim said: ‘what is your food and what is your drink?’ she replied: ‘our food is meat and our drink is water.’ he replied: ‘O Allah! Bless their meals and their drink.’

Abu Al Qasim (the Prophet)(P b u h) said: “Because of Ibrahim’s invocation there are blessings in Mecca.”

Ibn Abbas continued: “Once more Ibrahim thought of visiting his family he had left at Mecca and he told his wife (Sarah) of his decision. HE went and found Isma’il behind the Zam-zam well, mending his arrows. He said: ‘O Isma’il, your Lord has ordered me to build a house for Him.’ Isma’il said: ‘Obey the order of your Lord.’ Ibrahim said: ‘Allah has also ordered me that you should help me therein.’ Isma’il said: ‘Then I will do so.’ So both of them were saying: “O our Lord! Accept this service of us, verily, You are the All Hearer, the All Knower.” (2:127)

When the building became high and the old man (Ibrahim) could no longer lift the stones to such a high position, he stood over the stone of Al Maqam and Isma’il carried on handing him the stones and both of them were saying: “O our Lord! Accept this service of us, verily You are the All Hearer, the All Knower.””

Allah the Almighty told us of Ibrahim’s affliction with his beloved son: And he said after his rescue from the fire: “Verily! I am going to my Lord. He will guide me! My Lord! Grant me (offspring) from the righteous.” SO We gave him the glad tidings of a forbearing boy. And when he (his son) was old enough to walk with him, he said: “O my son! I have seen in a dream that I am slaughtering you (offer you in sacrifice to Allah), so look what do you think!ý” “O my father! Do that which you are commanded Inshah Allah (if Allah wills), you shall find me of the patient.”

Then when they had both submitted themselves to the Will of Allah and he had laid him prostrate on his forehead (or on the side of his forehead for slaughtering); and We called out to him: “O Ibrahim! You have fulfilled the dream (vision!” Verily! Thus do We reward those who perform good deeds, totally for Allah’s sake only. Verily, that indeed was a manifest trial and We ransomed him with a great sacrifice (a ram;) and We left for him ( a goodly remembrance) among generations (to come) in later times. “Salamun (peace) be upon Ibrahim!” Thus indeed do We reward the Muhsineen (good doers). Verily, he was one of Our believing slaves. (37:99-111 Quran)

Time passed. One day Ibrahim was sitting outside his tent thinking of his son Isma’il and Allah’s sacrifice. His heart was filled with awe and love for Allah for His countless blessings. A big tear dropped from his eyes and reminded him of Isma’il.

In the meantime, three angels descended to the earth; Gabriel, Is Raphael, and Michael. they came in human shapes and saluted Ibrahim. Ibrahim arose and welcomed them. He took them inside his tent thinking they were strangers and guests. He seated them and made sure that they were comfortable, then excused himself to go to his people.

His wife Sarah arose when he entered. She had become old and white haired. Ibrahim said to her: “We have three strangers in the house.” “Who are they?” she asked. “I do not know any of them,” he answered. “What food have we got?” He asked. Half a sheep.” she replied, “Half a sheep! Slaughter a fat calf for them; they are strangers and guests.” he ordered while leaving.

The servants roasted and served a calf. Ibrahim invited the angels to eat and he started eating so as to encourage them. He continued, but when he glanced at his guests to assure they were eating, he noticed that none of them had touched the food. He said to the them: “Are you not going to eat?” He resumed eating, but when he glanced at them again he found that they were still not eating. Their hands did not reach out for the food. HE began to fear them.

Ibrahim’s fears increased. The angels, however were reading his inner thoughts and one of them said: “Do not fear.” Ibrahim raised his head and replied: “Indeed I am in fear. I have asked you to eat food but you do not stretch out your hands to eat. DO you intend me evil?”

One of the angels smiled and said: “We do not eat. We are Allah’s angels.” One of them then turned towards his wife and conveyed the glad tidings about Isaac (Ishaaq).

Almighty Allah revealed: Verily! There came Our Messengers to Ibrahim with glad tidings. They said: “Salaam (greetings or peace)!” he answered: “Salaam (greetings or peace)!” and he hastened to entertain them with a roasted calf. But, when he saw their hands went not towards it (the meal), he felt some mistrust of them, and conceived a fear of them. They said: “Fear not, we have been sent against the people of Lot.” And his wife was standing there and she laughed (either, because the Messengers did not eat their food or for being glad for the destruction of the people of Lot). But We gave her glad tidings of Isaac, and after him of Jacob.

She said (in astonishment): “Woe unto me! Shall I bear a child while I am an old woman, and here is my husband an old man? Verily! This is a strange thing!” They said: “Do you wonder at the Decree of Allah? The Mercy of Allah and His Blessings be on you, O the family of Ibrahim( Abraham). Surely, He (Allah) is All praiseworthy, All-Glorious.” (11:69-73).

The Holy Prophet Salih Alayhi Salaam Story.

After the destruction of the ‘Ad, the tribe of Thamud succeeded them in power and glory. They also fell to idol-worshipping. As their material wealth increased so, too, did their evil ways while their virtue decreased. Like the people of ‘Ad, they erected huge buildings on the plains and hewed beautiful homes out of the hills. Tyranny and oppression became prevalent as evil men ruled the land.

 So Allah sent unto them His Prophet Salih (P.B.U.H.),, a man from among them. His name was Salih Ibn ‘Ubeid, Ibn Maseh, Ibn ‘Ubeid, Ibn Hader, Ibn Thamud, Ibn ‘Ather, Ibn Eram, Ibn Noah. He called his people to worship Allah alone, and to not associate partners with Him. While some of them believed him, the majority of them disbelieved and harmed him by both words and deeds. Salih directed them: «”O my people! Worship Allah, you have no other Ilah (god) but Him.”» Surah 11:61

 Salih was known for his wisdom, purity and goodness and had been greatly respected by his people before Allah’s revelation came to him. Salih’s people said to him: « “O Salih! You have been among us as a figure of good hope (and we wished for you to be our chief), till this [new thing which you have brought, that we leave our gods and worship your God (Allah) alone]! Do you (now) forbid us the worship of what our fathers have worshiped? But we are really in grave doubt as to that which you invite us to (monotheism).”» Surah 11:62

 They merely wanted to worship the same gods as their fathers had, with no reason, no proof, no thought. The proof of Salih’s (P.B.UH.) message was evident, but despite this it was obvious that most of his people did not believe him. They doubted his words, thinking he was charmed, and they saw that he would not stop preaching. Fearing that his followers would increase, they tried to put him off by assigning him an important task: to prove that he was a messenger of Allah by performing a miracle. Let a unique she-camel issue from the mountains.

Allah granted Salih this miracle and a huge, unique she-camel appeared from the direction of the mountain. The Qur’anic commentators said that the people of Thamud gathered on a certain day at their meeting place, and the prophet Salih (P.B.U.H.) came and addressed them to believe in Allah, reminding them of the favors Allah had granted them.

Then, pointing at a rock, they demanded: “Ask your Lord to make a she-camel – which must be ten months pregnant, tall and attractive – issue from the rock for us.”

Salih replied: “Look now! If Allah sends you what you have requested, just as you have described, will you believe in that which I have come to you with, and have faith in the message I have been sent with?”They answered: “Yes.” So he took a vow from them on this, then prayed to Allah the Almighty to grant their request. Allah ordered the distant rock to split asunder, bringing forth a great ten-month-pregnant she-camel. When their set eyes on it, they were amazed. They saw a great thing, a wonderful sight, dazzling power, clear evidence! .

A number of Salih’s people believed, yet most of them continued in their disbelief, stubbornness and going astray. Allah the Almighty said: «And We sent the she-camel to Thamud as a clear sign, but they did her wrong.»Surah 17:59 and also: «And verily, the dwellers of Al-Hijr (the rocky tract) denied the Messengers. And We gave them Our Signs, but they were averse to them. » Surah 15:80-81

 There are a number of ancient accounts of this camel and its miraculous nature. It was said that the she-camel was miraculous because a rock in the mountain split open and it came forth from it, followed by its young offspring. Other accounts said that the she-camel used to drink all the water in the wells in one day, and no other animals could approach the water. Still others claimed that the she-camel produced milk sufficient for all the people to drink, on the same day that it drank all the water, leaving none for them.

At first, the people of Thamud were greatly surprised when the she-camel issued from the mountain rocks. It was a blessed camel, its milk sufficient for thousands of men, women and children. If it slept in a place, that place was abandoned by other animals. Thus it was obvious that it was not an ordinary camel, but one of Allah’s signs. It lived among Salih’s people, some of whom believed in Allah while the majority continued in their obstinacy and disbelief.

Their hatred of Salih turned towards the blessed she-camel and became cent red on it. A conspiracy started to be hatched against the camel by the disbelievers, and they secretly plotted against it.

 Salih feared that they might kill the camel, so he warned them: «”O my people! This she-camel of Allah is a sign to you, leave her to feed on Allah’s earth, and touch her not with evil, lest a near torment will seize you.”( Surah 11:64 )

 For a while, Salih’s people let the camel graze and drink freely, but in their hearts they hated it. However, the miraculous appearance of the unique camel caused many to become Salih’s followers, and they clung to their belief in Allah.

 The disbelievers now began complaining that this huge she-camel with its unusual qualities drank most of the water and frightened their cattle.

 They laid a plot to kill the camel, and sought the help of their women-folk to tempt the men to carry out their commands. Saduq Bint of Mahya, who was from a rich and noble family, offered herself to a young man named Masra’i Ibn Mahraj on condition that he hamstring the camel. ‘Aniza, an old woman, offered one of her daughters to a young man, Qudar Ibn Saluf, in return for killing the camel. Naturally these young men were tempted and set about finding seven others to assist them.

They watched the camel closely, observing all its movements. As the she-camel came to drink at the well, Masra’i shot it in the leg with an arrow. It tried to escape but was hampered by the arrow. Qudar followed the camel and struck it with a sword in the other leg. As it fell to the ground, he pierced it with his sword.

The killers were given a hero’s welcome, cheered with songs and poetry composed in their praise. In their arrogance they mocked Salih, but he warned them: “Enjoy life for three more days then the punishment will descend upon you.” Salih was hoping that they would see the folly of their ways and change their attitude before the three days were out. “Why three days?” they asked. “Let the punishment come as quickly as possible. “He pleaded with them: “My people, why do you hasten to evil rather than good? Why do you not ask pardon of Allah so that you may receive mercy?” They replied: “We see your presence and that of your followers as bringing evil on us.”

Almighty Allah related their story: «And indeed We sent to Thamud their brother Salih, saying: ‘Worship Allah (Alone and none else).” Then look! They became two parties (believers and disbelievers) quarrelling with each other. He said: “O my people! Why do you seek to hasten the evil (torment) before the good (Allah’s Mercy)? Why seek you not the Forgiveness of Allah, that you may receive mercy?” They said: ‘We augur ill omen from you and those with you.” He said: “Your ill omen is with Allah; nay, but you are a people that are being tested.” And there were in the city nine men (from the sons of their chiefs), who made mischief in the land, and would not reform. They said: “Swear one to another by Allah that we shall make a secret night attack on him and his household, and afterwards we will surely say to his near relatives: We witnessed not the destruction of his household, and verily! We are telling the truth. So they plotted a plot, and We planned a plan, while they perceived not. Then see how was the end of their plot! Verily! We destroyed them and their nation, all together. These are their houses in utter ruin, for they did wrong. Verily, in this is indeed an Ayah (a lesson or a sign) for people who know. And We saved those who believed, and used to fear and obey Allah.» Surah 27: 45-53

They also plotted to kill Salih and his household as Almighty Allah stated: “So they plotted a plot, and We planned a plan, while they perceived not.” ( Surah 27:50 ) Allah saved Salih and his followers from their wicked plans. Heavy-hearted, they left the evil-doers and moved to another place.

 Three days after Salih’s warning, thunderbolts filled the air, followed by severe earthquakes which destroyed the entire tribe and its homeland. The land was violently shaken, destroying all living creatures in it. There was one terrific cry which had hardly ended when the disbelievers of Salih’s people were struck dead, one and all, at the same time. Neither their strong buildings nor their rock-hewn homes could protect them.

 Allah the Exalted said: «And to Thamud (people We sent) their brother Salih. He said: “O my people! Worship Allah, you have no other Ilah (god) but Him (none has the right to be worshiped but Allah). Indeed there has come to you a clear sign (the miracle of the coming out of a huge she-camel from the midst of a rock) from your Lord. This she-camel of Allah is a sign unto you; so you leave her to graze in Allah’s earth, and touch her not with harm, lest a painful torment should seize you. And remember when He made you successors after ‘Ad (people) and gave you habitations in the land, you build for yourselves palaces in plains, and carve out homes in the mountains. So remember the graces (bestowed upon you) from Allah, and do not go about making mischief on the earth.” The leaders of those who were arrogant among his people said to those who were counted weak – to such of them as believed: “Know you that Salih is one sent from his Lord.” They said: “We indeed believe in that with which he has been sent.” Those who were arrogant said: “Verily, we disbelieve in that which you believe in.” So they killed the she-camel and insolently defied the. Commandment of their Lord, and said: “O Salih! Bring about your threats if you are indeed one of the Messengers (of Allah).” So the earthquake seized them, and they lay (dead), prostrate in their homes. Then he (Salih) turned from them, and said: “O my people! I have indeed conveyed to you the Message of my Lord, and have given you good advice but you like not good advisers.” ( Surah 7:73-79 )

All were destroyed before they realized what was happening. As for the people who believed in the message of Salih (P.B.U.H.), they were saved because they had left the place.

Ibn ‘Umar narrated that while the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) was passing by Thamud’s houses on his way to the battle of Tabuk, he stopped together with the people there. The people fetched water from the wells from which the people of Thamud used to drink. They prepared their dough (for baking) and filled their water-skins from it (the water from the wells). The Prophet of Allah (P.B.U.H.). ordered them to empty the water-skins and give the prepared dough to the camels. Then he went away with them until they stopped at the well from which the she-camel (of Salih) used to drink. He warned them against entering upon the people that had been punished, saying: “I fear that you may be affected by what afflicted them; so do not enter upon them.”

The Holy Prophet Jacob ( Yaqub ) Peace be upon him.

The Story of Isaac (Ishaaq) and Jacob (Yaqub)

The Qur’an does not give details of Isaac’s life (P.B.U.H.), but reliable Qur’anic commentators mentioned that when Abraham felt that his life was drawing to a close, he wished to see Isaac married. He did not want Isaac to marry one of the Canaanites, who were pagans, so he sent a trustworthy servant to Haran in Iraq to choose a bride for Isaac. The servant’s choice fell on Rebekah Bint Bethuel, Ibn Nahor, who was a brother of Abraham. Isaac married her and she gave birth to a set of twins, Esau (Al-Eis) and Jacob (Yaqub).

Ill feelings developed between the two brothers when they grew into manhood. Esau disliked the fact that Jacob was favoured by his father and by Allah with Prophet hood. This ill-feeling became so serious that Esau threatened to kill his brother. Fearing for his life, Jacob fled the country.


The People of the Book said that when Isaac was forty years old, he married Rebekah, Bint Bethuel, during his father’s life. They said she was sterile, so Isaac prayed to Allah and then she became pregnant. She gave birth to twin boys. The first one was called Esau whom the Arabs call Al-Eis. He became the father of Rum. The second one was called Jacob, which means Israel (belonging to the people of Israel).


The People of the Book claimed that when Isaac (P.B.U.H.) grew old and his eye-sight had weakened, he had a desire for food, so he asked his son Esau to go hunting and bring him some cooked game. Esau asked him to bless the food and pray for him. Esau, a hunter, went out to get his father the meat. Rebekah, overhearing this, ordered her son Jacob to slaughter two goats of his best flock and cook them as his father liked and bring it to him before his brother returned. She dressed Jacob in his brother’s clothes and put goat skin on his arms and neck, for Esau was hairy while Jacob was not.

When he approached his father with the food, his father asked: “Who are you?” Jacob answered: “I am your son.” When his father finished eating, he prayed for his son to be the more blessed brother and to prevail over them and all people, and for Allah to sustain him and his children.

When he left his father, his brother Esau, who had carried out his father’s command, entered. Isaac asked him: “What is this, my son?” He answered: “This is the food you like.” Isaac said: “Did you bring it an hour ago and ask me to pray for you?” Esau answered: “No, I swear I did not,” and he knew his brother had preceded him in this matter and he was sick at heart.


The People of the Book said that Esau threatened to kill his brother when their father was dead. They also said that he asked his father to pray for him that Allah make the earth good for his offspring and multiply his sustenance and fruits.


When their mother knew that Esau threatened his brother Jacob, she commanded her son Jacob to go to her brother Laban in the land of Haran and abide with him for a time until his brother’s anger had abated, and to marry one of Laban’s daughters. She told her husband Isaac to command him with that advice and pray for him, and he did.

Jacob (P.B.U.H.) left his family. When night came he found a place to rest. He took a stone and put it under his head and slept. He dreamed of a ladder from heaven to earth. Angels were ascending and descending and the Lord addressed him and said to him: “I will bless you and your offspring and make this land for you and for those who come after you.”

When he awoke he felt joyful from what he had seen in his dream and vowed, for Allah’s sake, that if he returned to his family safely, he would build here a temple for Allah the Almighty. He also vowed to give one tenth of his property for the sake of Allah. He poured oil on the stone so as to recognize it and called the place “Ayle’s House” (Bethel), which means “House of Allah.” It was to be the location of Jerusalem later.

The People of the Book also said that when Jacob came to his maternal uncle in the land of Haran, his uncle had two daughters. The elder one was called Leah (Lia) and the younger one was Rachel (Rahil). The latter was the better and lovelier of the two. His uncle agreed to marry his daughter to him on the condition that Jacob pasture his sheep for seven years.


After a period of time, his uncle prepared a feast and gathered people for the wedding. He married Leah, his elder daughter, to him at night. She was weak-sighted and ugly. When morning came, Jacob discovered that she was Leah and he complained to his uncle: “You deceived me; I was engaged to Rachel and you married me to Leah.” His uncle said: “It is not our tradition to marry the younger daughter before the elder daughter. However, if you love her sister, work another seven years and I will marry you to both of them.”


Jacob worked for seven years and then married Rachel. It was acceptable in their time, as described in the Torah, for a man to marry two sisters. Laban gave a female slave to each daughter. Leah’s slave was called Zilpah and Rachel’s slave was called Bilha.

Almighty Allah compensated Leah’s weakness by giving her sons. The first one was named Reuben (Robel), after whom there were Simeon (Shamun), Levi (Lawi), and Judah (Yahudh). Rachel felt jealous of Leah’s having sons, as she was barren. She gave her slave Bilha to her husband and he had relations with her until she became pregnant. She gave birth to a son and named him Naphtali.

Leah was vexed that Rachel’s slave had given birth to a son, so she, in turn, gave her slave Zilpah to Jacob (P.B.U.H.). Zilpah gave birth to two sons, Gad and Asher. Then Leah got pregnant and gave birth to her fifth son, Isssachar, and later she gave birth to a sixth son, Zebulun. After this Leah gave birth to a daughter named Dinah. Thus, Leah had seven sons from Jacob.

Then Rachel prayed to Allah to give her a son from Jacob. Allah heard her call and responded to her prayer. She gave birth to a son, great, honorable, and beautiful. She named him Joseph (Yusuf).

All of this happened when they were in the land of Haran and Jacob (P.B.U.H.) was pasturing his uncle’s sheep, which he did for a period of twenty years. Jacob then asked his uncle Laban to let him go and visit his family. His uncle said to him: “I have been blessed because of you; ask for whatever money you need.” Jacob said: “Give me each spotted and speckled goat born this year and each black lamb.”

But at Laban’s command his sons removed their father’s goats that were striped, spotted or speckled, and the black lambs, lest others should be born with those traits. They walked for three days with their father’s goats and sheep while Jacob tended the remaining flock.


The People of the Book said that Jacob (P.B.U.H.) took fresh rods of poplar, almond and plane. He peeled streaks in them and cast them into the water troughs for the goats to look at. The young inside their abdomens were terrified and moved and they were born striped, spotted, or speckled. When the sheep were breeding, he set their faces towards the black sheep in Laban’s flock and put the rods among them. Their lambs were born black. This was considered an example of supernatural powers, a miracle. Jacob had many goats, sheep, beast and slaves. His uncle and his sons faces changed as if they (the sheep and goats) had been stolen from them.


Allah the Almighty inspired Jacob to return to the country of his father and people, and He promised to stand by him. Jacob told his family that, and they responded and obeyed him. Jacob did not tell Laban of his plans, however, and left without bidding farewell.


Upon leaving, Rachel stole her father’s idols. After Jacob and his people had fled for his country, Laban and his people followed them. When Laban met with Jacob, he blamed him for leaving him without his knowledge. He would have liked to know so that he could have made them leave with celebration and joy, with drums and songs, and so that he could have bidden his daughters and sons farewell. And why had they taken his idols with them?

Jacob had no knowledge of his idols, so he denied that he had taken them from him. Then Laban entered the tents of his daughters and slaves to search, but he found nothing, for Rachel had put the idols in the camel saddle under her. She did not get up, apologizing that she had her menses. Thus, he could not perceive what they had done-.


Then they sat on a hill called Galeed and made a covenant there. Jacob would not ill-treat Laban’s daughters nor marry others. Neither Laban nor Jacob would pass the hill into the other’s country. They cooked food and their people ate with them. Each bade the other farewell as they departed, each returning to his own country.

When Jacob approached the land of Seir, the angels greeted him. He sent a messenger ahead with greetings to his brother Esau, asking forgiveness and humbling himself before him. The messenger returned greetings and told Jacob that Esau was riding towards him with four hundred men.

This made Jacob afraid and he entreated and prayed to Allah Almighty. He prostrated in humiliation and asked Him to fulfill His promise which He had made before. He asked Him to stop the evil of his brother Esau. Then Jacob (P.B.U.H.) prepared a great present for his brother: two hundred female goats and twenty male goats, two hundred ewes and twenty rams, thirty much camels, forty cows and ten bulls, twenty female donkeys and ten male donkeys

He commanded his slaves to take the animals, each drove by itself, and pass on ahead of him with a space between the droves. He instructed them: “When you meet my brother Esau he will ask you, ‘To whom do you belong? Where are you going?’ You shall say, ‘They belong to your servant Jacob; they are a present to my master Esau. Moreover, he is behind us.”


Jacob stayed behind with his two wives, his slaves and his children for two nights, then continued walking by night and resting by day.


When the dawn of the second day came one of the angels appeared in the shape of a man. Jacob began to wrestle with him. They were neck and neck until the angel injured his thigh and Jacob became lame. When the day was breaking, the angel said to him: “What is your name?” He answered: “Jacob.” The angel said: “After today you shall not be called (anything) but Israel.” Jacob asked: “And who are you? What is your name?” He vanished. Then Jacob knew that he was one of the angels. Jacob was lame, and for this reason the children of Israel do not eat the thigh muscle on the hip socket.

Jacob raised his eyes and saw his brother Esau coming. Jacob prostrated seven times before him, for it was their salutation in that time. It was lawful for them just as the angels had prostrated in salutation to Adam.

When Esau saw him, he ran towards him, embraced and kissed him and wept. When Esau raised his eyes and saw the women and children, he asked: “Who are these with you?” Jacob answered: “Those whom Allah has given me, your servant.” Leah, Rachel, their slaves, and all the children approached and prostrated before him. Jacob asked Esau to accept his gift and insisted until he did so.

Esau returned and went in advance before him. Jacob and his family followed with the flocks and herds and slaves to the mountains (Seir).

When he came to Succoth (Sahur), he built a house for himself and shades for his beasts. Then he passed by Jerusalem, the village of Shechem, and camped before the village. He bought a farm from Shechem Ibn Hamor with one hundred goats and built an altar, which he called Ayl, as Allah commanded him. He built the altar where Jerusalem stands today and later Solomon son of David (P.B.U.T.) rebuilt it. It is in the place of the stone which he had earlier anointed with oil, as was mentioned before.

The People of the Book tell a story of Dinah, daughter of Jacob and Leah. Shechem Ibn Hamor seized her and lay with her by force. Then he asked her father and brothers to let him marry her. Her brothers said: “Circumcise, all of you, and we will give our daughters to you, and we will take your daughters for ourselves; but we do not marry with uncircumcised people.” They (the men of the city) agreed to that, and all of them were circumcised. When the third day came and the pain from the circumcision had increased, Jacob’s sons approached and killed them till the last one. They killed Shechem and his father for the evil they had committed against them and for their worship of idols. That is why Jacob’s sons killed them and seized their money as spoils.

Then Rachel got pregnant and gave birth to a son, Benjamin, but she had a hard labor and died after delivery. Jacob buried her in Ephrath (Afrath). The tomb of Rachel is there till the present day.

Jacob’s sons were twelve men. From Leah there were Reuben (Robil), Simeon (Shamun), Levi (Lawi), Judah (Yahudh), Issachar (Isakher), and Zebulun (Zablun). From Rachel there were Joseph (PBUH) and Benjamin. From Rachel’s slave there were Dan and Naphtali (Neftali), and from Leah’s slave there were Gad and Asher.

Jacob came to his father Isaac and settled with him in the village of Hebron which lies in the land of Canaan where Abraham had lived. Then Isaac fell ill and died when he was one hundred eighty years old. His sons Esau and Jacob, buried him with his father Abraham Al-Khalil in a cave which he had bought. It was said that Abraham died at the age of one hundred seventy-five.

Allah the Almighty declared in the Glorious Qur’an: «And who turns away from the religion of Abraham (i.e. Islamic Monotheism) except him who befools himself? Truly, We chose him in this world and verily, in the Hereafter he will be among the righteous.

When his Lord said to him: “Submit (i.e. be a Muslim)!” He said: “I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinn and all that exists).”

And this (submission to Allah, Islam) was enjoined by Abraham upon his sons and by Jacob, (saying): “O my Sons! Allah has chosen for you the (true) religion, then die not except in the Faith of Islam (as Muslims – Islamic Monotheism).”

Or were you witnesses when death approached Jacob? When he said unto his sons: “What will you worship after me?” They said: “We shall worship your Ilah (God -Allah) the Ilah (God) of your fathers, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, One Ilah (God), and to Him we submit (in Islam).”


That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned and you of what you earn. And you will not be asked of what they used to do.


And they say: “Be Jews or Christians, then you will be guided.” Say (to them, O Muhammad): “Nay, (we follow) only the religion of Abraham, Hanifan [Islamic Monotheism, i.e. to worship none but Allah (Alone),] and he was not of Al-Mushrikeen (those who worshiped others along with Allah.)”

Say (O Muslims): “We believe in Allah and that which has been sent down to us and that which has been sent down to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and to Al-Asbat (the twelve sons of Jacob), and that which has been given to Moses and Jesus, and that which has been given to the Prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have submitted (in Islam).”

So if they believe in the like of that which you believe, then they are rightly guided, but if they turn away, then they are only in opposition. So Allah will suffice you against them. And he is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.

[Our Sibghah (religion) is] the Sibghah (religion) of Allah (Islam) and which Sibghah (religion) can be better than Allah’s. And we are His worshipers.

Say (O Muhammad, to the Jews and Christians): “Dispute you with us about Allah while He is our Lord and your Lord? And we are to be rewarded for our deeds and you for your deeds. And we are sincere to Him in worship and obedience (i.e. we worship Him Alone and none else, and we obey His Orders.).” Or say you that Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and Al-Asbat (the twelve Sons of Jacob) were Jews or Christians? Say: “Do you know better or does Allah (know better . . . that they all were Muslims)? And who is more unjust than he who conceals the testimony [i.e. to believe in Prophet Muhammad when he comes, written in their books] he has from Allah? And Allah is not unaware of what you do.” Surah 2: 130-140

In another surah Almighty Allah declared: “O’ People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Why do you dispute about Abraham, while the Torah and the Gospel were not revealed till after him? Have you then no sense? Verily, you are those who have disputed about that of which you have knowledge. Why do you then dispute concerning that which you have no knowledge? It is Allah Who knows, and you know not.

Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hani fan (Islamic Monotheism, – to worship none but Allah Alone) and he was not of the polytheists (i.e. he joined none in worship with Allah).

Verily, among mankind who have the best claim to Abraham are those who followed him, and this Prophet (Muhammad) and those who have believed (Muslims). And Allah is the Wali (Protector and Helper) of the believers.” Surah 3: 65-68

Allah the Exalted also affirmed: “Then, verily! Your Lord- for those who do evil (commit sins and are disobedient to Allah) in ignorance and afterward repent and do righteous deeds, verily, your Lord thereafter, (to such) is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful”.

Verily, Abraham was an Uma (a leader having all the good righteous qualities, or a nation), obedient to Allah, Hani fan (i.e. to worship none but Allah), and he was not one of those who were Al-Mushrikeen (polytheists, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah, and those who joined partners with Allah). (He was) thankful for His (Allah’s) Graces. He (Allah) chose him (as an intimate friend) and guided him to a Straight Path (Islamic Monotheism, neither Judaism or Christianity). And We gave him good in this world, and in the Hereafter he shall be of the righteous.

Then, We have inspired you (O Muhammad saying): “Follow the religion of Abraham Hani fan (Islamic Monotheism – to worship none but Allah) and he was not of the Mushrikeen (i.e. polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad, those who worship others along with Allah or set up rivals with (or partners to) Allah.]” Surah 16: 119-123.

The Holy Prophet Isaac P.B.U.H.

 

His mother is Sarah the daughter of Bethuel ben Nahor which is by turn the brother of Terah and the uncle of Abraham (P.B.U.H.), so she is the daughter of the cousin of Abraham and also his maternal cousin, as it was mentioned before, and Isaac was born after his brother Ishmael by five years, and this is the most famous for us, and in Torah it is mentioned that he was born and Ishmael was fourteen years old, and as Al-Mas`udi mentioned, that Ishmael was born and Abraham was eighty six years old or eighty seven and Isaac was born while he was one hundred and twenty years old, and the angels brought the happy tidings to Abraham about his son Isaac, and Sarah heard the tidings and laughed for it was weird for her to have children from an old man and an old barren woman, so the angels said to her: Do you wonder from the commandments of God? In other phrases God said: And we gave him tidings of the birth of Isaac, a prophet of the righteous(Al-Sâffât:112). Also God said: And We blessed him and Isaac. And of their seed are some who do good, and some who plainly wrong themselves(Al-Sâffât:113), and: We gave him Isaac and Jacob. Each of them We made a prophet. And we gave them of Our mercy, and assigned to them a high and true renown(Maryam:49-50). God also said: and gave him tidings of (the birth of) a wise son. Then his wife came forward, making moan, and smote her face, and cried: A barren old woman!(Al-Ðariyat:28-29).

Apparently, in Quran there was nothing about Isaac much more than tidings brought about him, and about him being a prophet. Yes, and we’ve mentioned before that in Torah and the Bible, the one that was to be saline was Isaac and not Ishmael, and we’ve mentioned a lot of details about this in the previous section when we talked about the conditions of Abraham (P.B.U.H.) and explained what is true and explained that the one that was to be saline was Ishmael and not Isaac. It is mentioned that Isaac (P.B.U.H.) lived for one hundred and eighty years and was buried in Jirun (Hebron), and it is the city of Al-Khaleel, in the cave of Al-Makfeelah (Machpelah). Isaac got married after his father as in some tales by a woman called Youmhâ’ the daughter of Bethuel, and she born him Al-`Ays (Esau) and Jacob as twins, but Esau came first then followed by Jacob, and when they were born Isaac was sixty years old and went blind, this is what was mentioned. He prayed for his son Jacob to have the leadership of his people and the prophecy in his descendants, and prayed for his son Esau to get the kingdom and power and in his descendants as well. He was one hundred and righty five years old when he died and was buried with his father and the places for their toms is famous and they are placed almost like eighteen miles away from Jerusalem in a mosque there called the mosque of Abraham [Arabic: Masjid Ibrâhim], and this is all mentioned in Muruj Al-Ðahab for Al-Mas`udi.

What is mentioned in Torah about his marriage, in summary, is that when Abraham became old and were not able to work anymore, he commanded his servant, Elazar, and told him to work on the marriage of his son Isaac and pick for him a wife from his own tribe and lands in Iraq, and told him to be aware from letting him get married to a daughter of the Canaanites that were in Palestine, and told him to never let Isaac get back again to the land that went out from which is Iraq, and never let him go back there even if his wife denied coming with him to his lands in Palestine. Then Elazar got ready for the travel and took with him everything applicable for the wife and her family, and went to Iraq, to the lands of the family. When he reached that land he stopped his camels before the town which is Padan-Aram and it is the town in which Abraham used to live, and his father there was a carpenter, as it is mentioned in the book of Barnaba, and it is the town in which his tribe lives with his relatives and there lives the desired man which is Nahor ben Terah, the brother of Abraham, but he was dead at that time, and none are left there except his children and their leader was Bethuel ben Nahor, and when Elazar stopped his camels before the city and wanted to get in, he saw a beautiful girl getting out of the city and carrying a jar, so Elazar said to her: get me some water, and so she did and welcomed him, then he asked about her family and he knew she is the daughter of Bethuel ben Nahor, so then when he knew her and her family he became so happy about it and asked about her father and whether he has a place for hospitality, and she said yes, then he presented himself as the servant of Abraham and he wants to take a wife for Isaac, and she is the one desired for this and no one else, then he made her wore some jewels and golden bracelets and she walked in front of him telling her family about the happy tidings and the dear guest from her uncle Abraham, and the girl’s name was Refqah (Rebekah). When the girl told her family about the messenger from Abraham their uncle and about his living place, immediately Lâbân ben Bethuel (Laban) went to his place and welcomed him and came with him to his own place and they were all happy for the visit of the messenger of Abraham, their uncle. Then after he stayed for a while with them he told them why he is here and he wants Rebekah for the son of his master and so they answered him with what he desires, then Elazar, Abraham’s messenger, gave her vessels made of gold and silver with some clothes and ornaments, and also gave to her brother Laban ben Bethuel and to her mother and distributed the rest over her family, and after the rest he asked them to get her prepared, so they answered his request and made her prepared for such an occasion, and Rebekah then agreed for his request to leave in a hurry, and so he picked her to the lands of his master, and when they arrived and Isaac looked at her, he got so happy for her and she had been a joy for him after the death of his mother Sarah.


Then Rebekah gave birth to a twin, and they are `Eesu (Esau) and Ya`qoob (Jacob), and she born first Esau then Jacob. We say, we can agree on both stories, this and the one before, as one story. The difference are in the names of `Eesu and Al-`Ays and that might be because of expressing in Arabic and Hebrew, and also in whether the marriage was during the life of Abraham or after his death, and in the different names of the wife of Isaac, Youmhâ’ [could not trace this name back to any source] and Rebekah, and might be that one is a name and the other is a title, but the story in Torah is more believable for what it contains and it is more closer to reality, and only God knows.

As attributed to Al-Râawandi in his tales, there is one tale that has a connection somehow with out subject, and that is there was at the time of Abraham (P.B.U.H.) a man called Mâriyyah ben Aws, and he was six hundred and sixty years old and he used to live in a place like a peninsula surrounded by waters and swamps, and he used to go out for people once every three years and live in the desert, and he had a mosque and he used to pray to God there and guide people to the religion of God and teach them the goodness, so one day he went out to the desert as he used to do and he saw a cattle and as if they had fat upon them, and he was amazed for that, and saw a young man with it and his face was like the face of the moon, so he asked him about the cattle and about their owner, so he answered: they are for Abraham, then he asked him about himself and he answered: I am his son Isaac. Then Mâriyyah said for himself: O Lord let me see your friend Abraham before I die. Isaac then told his father Abraham about what happened between him and Mâriyyah ben Aws and about his conditions, then after three years he went out as he used to be and found a man in that place that he never saw before and the man asked him about his conditions and his place, so Mâriyyah ben Aws answered him and described his place for him, then the man showed the passion for staying with Mâriyyah to look at his way of living and Mâriyyah answered him that he can’t pass over to his place, so then the man asked: why? have you not a bridge? He said: No, but I walk over water, so the main said: maybe the One that exploited water for you will exploit the water for me as well, so then they walked together until they reached the water, then Mâriyyah said: By the name of God, and he passed over the water surface, then the man said: By the name of God, and passed over the water surface, then Mâriyyah looked at him while walking and he was amazed, then they reached the residence of Mâriyyah and the man stayed with him for three days, and Mâriyyah used to live on fruit and dries out some of them for winter season. So when the man wanted to leave him he (Mâriyyah) asked him about his name, so the man said: I am Abraham, the friend of God, and Mâriyyah before that used to pray to God to see His friend, so when he heard his name and knew who he is, he went to him and hugged him and thanked God for answering his prays, and there are other long matters that no need to mention here and what we’ve mentioned is enough for now and God knows His servants and creations, and He knows everything.

The Holy Prophet Ishmael ( Ismail ) Alaihi Salaam Story.

 

One day, Abraham woke up and asked his wife Hajar to get her son and prepare for a long journey. In a few days, Abraham started out with his wife Hajar and their son Ishmael. The child was still nursing and not yet weaned. Abraham walked through cultivated land, desert, and mountains until he reached the desert of the Arabian Peninsula and came to an uncultivated valley having no fruit, no trees, no food, no water. The valley had no sign of life. After Abraham had helped his wife and child to dismount, he left them with a small amount of food and water which was hardly enough for two days. He turned around and walked away. His wife hurried after him asking: “Where are you going, Abraham, leaving us in this barren valley?”


Abraham did not answer her, but continued walking. She repeated what she had said, but he remained silent. Finally, she understood that he was not acting on his own initiative. She realised that Allah had commanded him to do this. She asked him: “Did Allah command you to do so?” He replied: “Yes.” Then his great wife said: “We are not going to be lost, since Allah, Who has commanded you, is with us.”


Abraham invoked Almighty Allah thus: « “O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in a valley with no cultivation, by Your Sacred House (the Ka’ba at Mecca); in order, O our Lord, that they may offer prayers perfectly (Iqamat-as-Salat), so fill some hearts among men with love towards them, and (O Allah) provide them with fruits so that they may give thanks. O our Lord! Certainly, You know what we conceal and what we reveal. Nothing on the earth or in the heaven is hidden from Allah.” ( Surah 14: 37-38 ).

Ibn ‘Abbas narrated: “The first lady to use a girdle was the mother of Ishmael. She used a girdle so that she might hide her tracks from Sarah [by dragging it]. Abraham brought her and her son Ishmael, while she was suckling him, to a place near the Ka’ba under a tree on the spot of Zam-zam, at the highest place in the mosque. During those days there was nobody in Mecca, nor was there any water so he made them sit over there and placed near them a leather bag containing some dates and a small water-skin containing some water and set out homeward. Ishmael’s mother followed him saying: “O Abraham! Where are you going, leaving us in this valley where there is no person whose company we may enjoy, nor is there anything (to enjoy)?’ She repeated that to him many times, but he did not look back at her. Then she asked him: ‘Has Allah ordered you to do so?’ He said: ‘Yes.’ She said: ‘Then He will not neglect us,’ and returned while Abraham proceeded onwards. On reaching the Thaniya where they could not see him, he faced the Ka’ba, and raising both hands, invoked Allah saying the following prayers: “O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring dwell in a valley without cultivation, by Your Sacred House (Ka’ba at Mecca) in order, O our Lord, that they may offer prayers perfectly. So fill some hearts among men with love towards them, and (O Allah) provide them with fruits, so that they may give thanks.”( Surah 14: 37.38 ).

Ibn ‘Abbas’s narration continued: “Ishmael’s mother went on suckling Ishmael and drinking from the water (she had). When the water in the water-skin had all been used up, she became thirsty and her child also became thirsty. She started looking at him (i.e. Ishmael) tossing in agony. She left him, for she could not endure looking at him, and found that the mountain of As-Safa was the nearest mountain to her on that land. She stood on it and started looking at the valley keenly so that she might see somebody, but she could not see anybody. Then she descended from As-Safa and when she reached the valley, she tucked up her robe and ran in the valley like a person in distress and trouble, till she crossed the valley and reached the mountain of Al-Marwa. There she stood and started looking, expecting to see somebody, but she could not see anybody. She repeated that (running between Safa and Marwa) seven times.”

The Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) said: “This is the source of the tradition of the Sa’y the going of people between them (i.e. As-Safa and Al-Marwa). When she reached Al-Marwa (for the last time) she heard a voice and she asked herself to be quiet and listened attentively. She heard the voice again and said: ‘O, (whoever you may be)! You have made me hear your voice; have you got something to help me?’ And behold! She saw an angel at the place of Zam-zam, digging the earth with his heel (or his wing) till water flowed from that place. She started to make something like a basin around it, using her hand in this way, and started filling her water-skin with water with her hands, and the water was flowing out after she had scooped some of it.”

The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) added: “May Allah bestow mercy on Ishmael’s mother! Had she let the Zam-zam (flow without trying to control it) (or had she not scooped from that water to fill her water-skin), Zam-zam would have been a stream flowing on the surface of the earth.”


The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) continued: “Then she drank (water) and suckled her child. The angel said to her: ‘Don’t be afraid of being neglected, for this is the House of Allah which will be built by this boy and his father, and Allah never neglects His people.’ The House (i.e. Ka’ba) at that time was on a high place resembling a hillock, and when torrents came, they flowed to its right and left.


“She lived in that way till some people from the tribe of Jurhum or a family from Jurhum passed by her and her child, as they (i.e. the Jurhum people) were coming through the way of Kada’. They landed in the lower part of Mecca where they saw a bird that had the habit of flying around water and not leaving it. They said: ‘This bird must be flying around water, though we know that there is no water in this valley.’ They sent one or two messengers who discovered the source of water and returned to inform them of the water. So, they all came (towards the water). Ishmael’s mother was sitting near the water. They asked her: ‘Do you allow us to stay with you?’ She replied: ‘Yes, but you will have no right to possess the water.’ They agreed to that. Ishmael’s mother was pleased with the whole situation, as she used to love to enjoy the company of the people. So, they settled there, and later on they sent for their families, who came and settled with them so that some families became permanent residents there. The child (i.e. Ishmael) grew up and learned Arabic from them and (his virtues) caused them to love and admire him as he grew up, and when he reached the age of puberty they made him marry a woman from amongst them.”

The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) continued: “After Ishmael’s mother had died, Abraham came after Ishmael’s marriage in order to see his family that he had left before, but he did not find Ishmael there. When he asked Ishmael’s wife about him, she replied: ‘He has gone in search of our livelihood.’ Then he asked her about their way of living and their condition, and she replied: ‘We are living in misery; we are living in hardship and destitution,’ complaining to him. He said, ‘When your husband returns, convey my salutation to him and tell him to change the threshold of the gate (of his house).’

“When Ishmael came, he seemed to have felt something unusual, so he asked his wife: ‘Has anyone visited you?’ She replied: ‘Yes, an old man of such-and-such description came and asked me about you, and I informed him, and he asked about our state of living, and I told him that we were living in a hardship and poverty.’ On that Ishmael said: ‘Did he advise you anything?’ She replied: ‘Yes, he told me to convey his salutation to you and to tell you to change the threshold of your gate.’ Ishmael said: ‘It was my father, and he has ordered me to divorce you. Go back to your family.’ So, Ishmael divorced her and married another woman from among them (i.e. Jurhum).

“Then Abraham stayed away from them for a period as long as Allah wished and called on them again but did not find Ishmael. So he came to Ishmael’s wife and asked her about Ishmael. She said: ‘He has gone in search of our livelihood.’ Abraham asked her: ‘How are you getting on?’ asking her about their sustenance and living. She replied: ‘We are prosperous and well-off (i.e. we have everything in abundance).’ Then she thanked Allah. Abraham said: ‘What kind of food do you eat?’ She said: ‘Meat.’ He said: ‘What do you drink?’ She said: Water.’ He said: ‘O Allah! Bless their meat and water.”

The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) added: “At that time they did not have grain, and if they had had grain, he would have also invoked Allah to bless it. If somebody has only these two things as his sustenance, his health and disposition will be badly affected, unless he lives in Mecca.”


The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) continued: “Then Abraham said to Ishmael’s wife: ‘When your husband comes, give my regards to him and tell him that he should keep firm the threshold of his gate.’ When Ishmael came back, he asked his wife: ‘Did anyone call on you?’ She replied: ‘Yes, a good-looking old man came to me,’ so she praised him and added: ‘He asked about you and I informed him, and he asked about our livelihood and I told him that we were in a good condition.’ Ishmael asked her: ‘Did he give you any piece of advice?’ She said: ‘Yes, he told me to give his regards to you and ordered that you should keep firm the threshold of your gate.’ On that Ishmael said: ‘It was my father, and you are the threshold (of the gate). He has ordered me to keep you with me.’


“Then Abraham stayed away from them for a period as long as Allah wished and called on them afterwards. He saw Ishmael under a tree near Zam-Zam, sharpening his arrows.


When he saw Abraham, he rose up to welcome him (and they greeted each other as a father does with his son or a son does with his father). Abraham said: ‘O Ishmael! Allah has given me an order.’ Ishmael said: ‘Do what your Lord has ordered you to do.’ Abraham asked: ‚Will you help me?’ Ishmael said: ‘I will help you.’ Abraham said: ‘Allah has ordered me to build a house here,’ pointing to a hillock higher than the land surrounding it.


“Then they raised the foundations of the House (i.e. the Ka’ba). Ishmael brought the stones while Abraham built, and when the walls became high, Ishmael brought this stone and put it for Abraham, who stood over it and carried on building. While Ishmael was handing him the stones, and both of them were saying: «”O our Lord! Accept (this service) from us, verily, You are the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.”» Surah 2: 127. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) added: “Then both of them went on building and going round the Ka’ba saying: “O our Lord! Accept (this service) from us, verily, You are the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.” Sahih Al-Bikhari

Ibn ‘Abbas narrated a slightly different version: “When Abraham had differences with his wife (because of her jealousy of Hajar, Ishmael’s mother), he took Ishmael and his mother and went away. They had a water-skin with them containing some water. Ishmael’s mother used to drink water from the water-skin so that her milk would increase for her child. When Abraham reached Mecca, he made her sit under a tree and afterwards returned home.

Ishmael’s mother followed him, and when they reached Kada’, she called him from behind: ‘O Abraham! To whom are you leaving us?’ He replied: ‘(I am leaving you) to Allah’s (care).’ She said: ‘I am satisfied to be with Allah.’ She returned to her place and started drinking water from the water-skin, and her milk increased for her child.

“When the water had all been used up, she said to herself: ‘I had better go and look so that I may see somebody.’ She ascended As-Safa Mountain and looked, hoping to see somebody, but in vain. When she came down to the valley, she ran till she reached Al-Marwa Mountain. She ran to and from (between the two mountains) many times. Then she said to herself: ‘I had better go and see the state of the child.’ She went and found it in a state of one on the point of dying. She could not endure to watch it dying and said (to herself): ‘If I go and look, I may find somebody.’ She went and ascended Al-Safa mountain and looked for a long while but could not find anybody. Thus she completed seven rounds (of running) between As-Safa and Al-Marwa. Again she said (to herself): ‘I had better go back and see the state of the child.’ But suddenly she heard a voice, and she said to that strange voice: ‘Help us if you can offer any help.’ Lo! It was Gabriel (who had made the voice). Gabriel hit the earth with his heel like this (Ibn ‘Abbas hit the earth with his heel to illustrate it), and so the water gushed out. Ishmael’s mother was astonished and started digging.”

Abu Al-Qasim, i.e. the Prophet, (P.B.U.H.) said: “If she had left the water, (flow naturally without her intervention), it would have been flowing on the surface of the earth.”

Ibn ‘Abbas continued narrating: “Ishmael’s mother started drinking from the water, and her milk increased for her child. Afterwards some people of the tribe of Jurhum saw some birds while passing through the bottom of the valley and that astonished them. They said: “Birds can only be found at a place where there is water.” They sent a messenger, who searched the place and found the water, and returned to inform them about it. Then they all went to her and said: “O Ishmael’s mother! Will you allow us to be with you (or dwell with you)?” (And thus they stayed there.)

“Later on her boy reached the age of puberty and married a lady from them. Then an idea occurred to Abraham, which he disclosed to his wife (Sarah). ‘I want to call on my dependents I left (at Mecca).’ When he went there he greeted (Ishmael’s wife) and said: ‘Where is Ishmael?’ She replied: ‘He has gone out hunting.’ Abraham said (to her): ‘When he comes, tell him to change the threshold of his gate.’ When Ishmael came, she told him the same, whereupon Ishmael said to her: ‘You are the threshold, so go to your family (i.e. you are divorced).’


“Again Abraham thought of visiting his dependents whom he had left (at Mecca), and he told his wife (Sarah) of his intentions. Abraham came to Ishmael’s house and asked: ‘Where is Ishmael?’ Ishmael’s wife replied: ‘He has gone out hunting,’ and added: ‘Will you stay (for some time) and have something to eat and drink?’ Abraham asked: ‘What is your food and what is your drink?’ She replied: ‘Our food is meat and our drink is water.’ He said: ‘O Allah! Bless their meals and their drink.’


Abu Al-Qasim, i.e. Prophet, (P.B.U.H.) said: “Because of Abraham’s invocation there are blessings (in Mecca).”Ibn ‘Abbas continued: “Once more Abraham thought of visiting his family he had left (at Mecca), so he told his wife (Sarah) of his decision. He went and found Ishmael behind the Zam-zam well, mending his arrows. He said: ‘O Ishmael, your Lord has ordered me to build a house for Him.’ Ishmael said: ‘Obey (the order of) your Lord.’ Abraham said: ‘Allah has also ordered me that you should help me therein.’ Ishmael said: ‘Then I will do so.’ So both of them rose and Abraham started building (the Ka’ba) while Ishmael went on handing him the stones, and both of them were saying: «”O our Lord! Accept (this service) of us, verily, You are the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.”» (Surah 2: 127 ). When the building became high and the old man (i.e. Abraham) could no longer lift the stones (to such a high position), he stood over the stone of Al-Maqam and Ishmael carried on handing him the stones, and both of them were saying: “O our Lord! Accept (this service) of us, verily, You are the All-Hearer, the All-Knower”.

Allah the Almighty told us of Abraham’s affliction with his beloved son: «And he said (after his rescue from the fire): “Verily, I am going to my Lord. He will guide me! My Lord! Grant me (offspring) from the righteous.” So We gave him the glad tidings of a forbearing boy.


And, when he (his son) was old enough to walk with him, he said: “O my son! I have seen in a dream that I am slaughtering you (offer you in sacrifice to Allah), so look what do you think!” He said: “O my father! Do that which you are commanded, Insha’ Allah (if Allah wills), you shall find me of the patient.”


Then, when they had both submitted themselves (to the Will of Allah) and he had laid him prostrate on his forehead (or on the side of his forehead for slaughtering); and We called out to him: “O Abraham! You have fulfilled the dream (vision)!” Verily! Thus do We reward those who perform good deeds totally for Allah’s sake only. Verily, that indeed was a manifest trial -and We ransomed him with a great sacrifice (i.e. a ram); and We left for him (a goodly remembrance) among generations (to come) in later times. “Salaamun (peace) be upon Abraham!” Thus indeed do We reward the Muhsineen (good-doers). Verily, he was one of Our believing slaves” ( Surah 37: 99-111 )

Time passed. One day Abraham was sitting outside his tent, thinking of his son Ishmael and Allah’s sacrifice. His heart was filled with awe and love for Allah for His countless blessings. A big tear dropped from his eyes and reminded him of Ishmael.

In the meantime, three angels descended to the earth: Gabriel, Is Raphael, and Michael. They came in human shape and saluted Abraham. Abraham arose and welcomed them. He took them inside his tent, thinking they were strangers and guests. He seated them and made sure that they were comfortable, then excused himself to go to his people.

His wife Sarah arose when he entered. She had become old and white-haired. Abraham said to her: “We have three strangers in the house.” “Who are they?” she asked. “I do not know any of them,” he answered. “What food have we got?” Abraham asked. “Half a sheep,” she replied. “Half a sheep! Slaughter a fat calf for them; they are strangers and guests,” he ordered while leaving.

The servants roasted and served a calf. Abraham invited the angels to eat, and he started eating so as to encourage them. He continued, but when he glanced at his guests to assure they were eating, he noticed that none of them had touched the food. He said to them: “Are you not going to eat?” He resumed eating, but when he glanced at them again he found that they were still not eating. Their hands did not reach out for the food. He began to fear them.


Abraham’s fears increased. The angels, however, were reading his inner thoughts and one of them said: “Do not fear.” Abraham raised his head and replied: “Indeed, I am in fear. I have asked you to eat food, but you do not stretch out your hands to eat. Do you intend me evil?”

One of the angels smiled and said: “We do not eat. We are Allah’s angels.” One of them then turned towards his wife and conveyed the glad tidings about Isaac (Ishaaq).


Almighty Allah revealed: “And verily, there came Our Messengers to Abraham with glad tidings. They said: “Salaam (greetings or peace)!” He answered: “Salaam (greetings or peace)” and he hastened to entertain them with a roasted calf. But when he saw their hands went not towards it (the meal), he felt some mistrust of them, and conceived a fear of them. They said: “Fear not, we have been sent against the people of Lot.” And his wife was standing (there), and she laughed (either, because the Messengers did not eat their food or for being glad for the destruction of the people of Lot). But We gave her glad tidings of Isaac, and after him, of Jacob.

She said (in astonishment): “Woe unto me! Shall I bear a child while I am an old woman, and here is my husband, an old man? Verily! This is a strange thing!” They said: “Do you wonder at the Decree of Allah? The Mercy of Allah and His Blessings be on you, O the family (of Abraham). Surely, He (Allah) is All-Praiseworthy, All-Glorious.” ( Surah 11: 69-73 ).

The holy Prophet Salih ( Shaloh P.b.u.h.) Story.

After the destruction of the ‘Ad, the tribe of Thamud succeeded them in power and glory. They also fell to idol-worshipping. As their material wealth increased so, too, did their evil ways while their virtue decreased. Like the people of ‘Ad, they erected huge buildings on the plains and hewed beautiful homes out of the hills. Tyranny and oppression became prevalent as evil men ruled the land.

 

So Allah sent unto them His Prophet Salih (P.B.U.H.),, a man from among them. His name was Salih Ibn ‘Ubeid, Ibn Maseh, Ibn ‘Ubeid, Ibn Hader, Ibn Thamud, Ibn ‘Ather, Ibn Eram, Ibn Noah. He called his people to worship Allah alone, and to not associate partners with Him. While some of them believed him, the majority of them disbelieved and harmed him by both words and deeds. Salih directed them: “O my people! Worship Allah, you have no other Ilah (god) but Him.”( Surah 11:61 )

 Salih was known for his wisdom, purity and goodness and had been greatly respected by his people before Allah’s revelation came to him. Salih’s people said to him:  “O Salih! You have been among us as a figure of good hope (and we wished for you to be our chief), till this [new thing which you have brought, that we leave our gods and worship your God (Allah) alone]! Do you (now) forbid us the worship of what our fathers have worshiped? But we are really in grave doubt as to that which you invite us to (monotheism).” ( Surah 11:62 )

 

They merely wanted to worship the same gods as their fathers had, with no reason, no proof, no thought. The proof of Salih’s (P.B.U.H.) message was evident, but despite this it was obvious that most of his people did not believe him. They doubted his words, thinking he was charmed, and they saw that he would not stop preaching. Fearing that his followers would increase, they tried to put him off by assigning him an important task: to prove that he was a messenger of Allah by performing a miracle. Let a unique she-camel issue from the mountains.

Allah granted Salih this miracle and a huge, unique she-camel appeared from the direction of the mountain. The Quran commentators said that the people of Thamud gathered on a certain day at their meeting place, and the prophet Salih (P.B.U.H.) came and addressed them to believe in Allah, reminding them of the favors Allah had granted them.

Then, pointing at a rock, they demanded: “Ask your Lord to make a she-camel – which must be ten months pregnant, tall and attractive – issue from the rock for us.”

Salih replied: “Look now! If Allah sends you what you have requested, just as you have described, will you believe in that which I have come to you with, and have faith in the message I have been sent with?”They answered: “Yes.” So he took a vow from them on this, then prayed to Allah the Almighty to grant their request. Allah ordered the distant rock to split asunder, bringing forth a great ten month pregnant she camel. When their set eyes on it, they were amazed. They saw a great thing, a wonderful sight, dazzling power, clear evidence! .

A number of Salih’s people believed, yet most of them continued in their disbelief, stubbornness and going astray. Allah the Almighty said: “And We sent the she-camel to Thamud as a clear sign, but they did her wrong.(Surah 17:59) and also: “And verily, the dwellers of Al Hijr (the rocky tract) denied the Messengers. And We gave them Our Signs, but they were averse to them”. ( Surah 15:80-81 )

 There are a number of ancient accounts of this camel and its miraculous nature. It was said that the she-camel was miraculous because a rock in the mountain split open and it came forth from it, followed by its young offspring. other accounts said that the she-camel used to drink all the water in the wells in one day, and no other animals could approach the water. Still others claimed that the she-camel produced milk sufficient for all the people to drink, on the same day that it drank all the water, leaving none for them.

At first, the people of Thamud were greatly surprised when the she-camel issued from the mountain rocks. It was a blessed camel, its milk sufficient for thousands of men, women and children. If it slept in a place, that place was abandoned by other animals. Thus it was obvious that it was not an ordinary camel, but one of Allah’s signs. It lived among Salih’s people, some of whom believed in Allah while the majority continued in their obstinacy and disbelief.

Their hatred of Salih turned towards the blessed she- camel and became centered on it. A conspiracy started to be hatched against the camel by the disbelievers, and they secretly plotted against it.

Salih feared that they might kill the camel, so he warned them: “O my people! This she-camel of Allah is a sign to you, leave her to feed on Allah’s earth, and touch her not with evil, lest a near torment will seize you.” (Surah 11:64 )

 For a while, Salih’s people let the camel graze and drink freely, but in their hearts they hated it. However, the miraculous appearance of the unique camel caused many to become Salih’s followers, and they clung to their belief in Allah.

The disbelievers now began complaining that this huge she-camel with its unusual qualities drank most of the water and frightened their cattle.

 They laid a plot to kill the camel, and sought the help of their women-folk to tempt the men to carry out their commands. Saduq Bint of Mahya, who was from a rich and noble family, offered herself to a young man named Masra’i Ibn Mahraj on condition that he hamstring the camel. ‘Aniza, an old woman, offered one of her daughters to a young man, Qudar Ibn Saluf, in return for killing the camel. Naturally these young men were tempted and set about finding seven others to assist them.

They watched the camel closely, observing all its movements. As the she-camel came to drink at the well, Masra’i shot it in the leg with an arrow. It tried to escape but was hampered by the arrow. Qudar followed the camel and struck it with a sword in the other leg. As it fell to the ground, he pierced it with his sword.

The killers were given a hero’s welcome, cheered with songs and poetry composed in their praise. In their arrogance they mocked Salih, but he warned them: “Enjoy life for three more days then the punishment will descend upon you.” Salih was hoping that they would see the folly of their ways and change their attitude before the three days were out. “Why three days?” they asked. “Let the punishment come as quickly as possible. “He pleaded with them: “My people, why do you hasten to evil rather than good? Why do you not ask pardon of Allah so that you may receive mercy?” They replied: “We see your presence and that of your followers as bringing evil on us.”

Almighty Allah related their story: “And indeed We sent to Thamud their brother Salih, saying: ‘Worship Allah (Alone and none else).” Then look! They became two parties (believers and disbelievers) quarrelling with each other. He said: “O my people! Why do you seek to hasten the evil (torment) before the good (Allah’s Mercy)? Why seek you not the Forgiveness of Allah, that you may receive mercy?” They said: ‘We augur ill o men from you and those with you.” He said: “Your ill omen is with Allah; nay, but you are a people that are being tested.” And there were in the city nine men (from the sons of their chiefs), who made mischief in the land, and would not reform. They said: “Swear one to another by Allah that we shall make a secret night attack on him and his household, and afterwards we will surely say to his near relatives: We witnessed not the destruction of his household, and verily! We are telling the truth. So they plotted a plot, and We planned a plan, while they perceived not. Then see how was the end of their plot! Verily! We destroyed them and their nation, all together. These are their houses in utter ruin, for they did wrong. Verily, in this is indeed an Ayah (a lesson or a sign) for people who know. And We saved those who believed, and used to fear and obey Allah.( Surah 27: 45-53 )

They also plotted to kill Salih and his household as Almighty Allah stated: “So they plotted a plot, and We planned a plan, while they perceived not”.( Surah 27:50). Allah saved Salih and his followers from their wicked plans. Heavy-hearted, they left the evil-doers and moved to another place.

 

Three days after Salih’s warning, thunderbolts filled the air, followed by severe earthquakes which destroyed the entire tribe and its homeland. The land was violently shaken, destroying all living creatures in it. There was one terrific cry which had hardly ended when the disbelievers of Salih’s people were struck dead, one and all, at the same time. Neither their strong buildings nor their rock-hewn homes could protect them.

 

Allah the Exalted said: “And to Thamud (people We sent) their brother Salih. He said: “O my people! Worship Allah, you have no other Ilah (god) but Him (none has the right to be worshiped but Allah). Indeed there has come to you a clear sign (the miracle of the coming out of a huge she-camel from the midst of a rock) from your Lord. This she-camel of Allah is a sign unto you; so you leave her to graze in Allah’s earth, and touch her not with harm, lest a painful torment should seize you. And remember when He made you successors after ‘Ad (people) and gave you habitations in the land, you build for yourselves palaces in plains, and carve out homes in the mountains. So remember the graces (bestowed upon you) from Allah, and do not go about making mischief on the earth.” The leaders of those who were arrogant among his people said to those who were counted weak – to such of them as believed: “Know you that Salih is one sent from his Lord.” They said: “We indeed believe in that with which he has been sent.” Those who were arrogant said: “Verily, we disbelieve in that which you believe in.” So they killed the she-camel and insolently defied the. Commandment of their Lord, and said: “O Salih! Bring about your threats if you are indeed one of the Messengers (of Allah).” So the earthquake seized them, and they lay (dead), prostrate in their homes. Then he (Salih) turned from them, and said: “O my people! I have indeed conveyed to you the Message of my Lord, and have given you good advice but you like not good advisers.”( Surah 7:73-79 )

All were destroyed before they realized what was happening. As for the people who believed in the message of Salih (P.B.U.H.), they were saved because they had left the place.

Ibn ‘Umar narrated that while the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) was passing by Thamud’s houses on his way to the battle of Tabuk, he stopped together with the people there. The people fetched water from the wells from which the people of Thamud used to drink. They prepared their dough (for baking) and filled their water-skins from it (the water from the wells). The Prophet of Allah (P.B.U.H.) ordered them to empty the water-skins and give the prepared dough to the camels. Then he went away with them until they stopped at the well from which the she-camel (of Salih) used to drink. He warned them against entering upon the people that had been punished, saying: “I fear that you may be affected by what afflicted them; so do not enter upon them.”

The Holy Prophet Noah ( Nuh ) P.B.U.H. Story.

He was Noah Ibn Lamik, Ibn Mitoshilkh, Ibn Enoch, Ibn Yard, Ibn Mahlabeel, Ibn Qinan, Ibn Anoush, Ibn Seth, Ibn Adam the Father of Mankind (P.B.U.H.)

According to the history of the People of the Book, the period between the birth of Noah and the death of Adam was one hundred forty-six years. Ibn ‘Abbas narrated that Prophet Muhammad [P.B.U.H.] said: “The period between Adam and Noah was ten centuries.” Sahih Al-Bukhari

For many generations Noah’s people had been worshiping statues that they called gods. They believed that these gods would bring them good, protect them from evil, and provide all their needs. They gave their idols names such as Waddan, Suwa’an, Yaghutha, Ya’auga, and Nasran, according to the power they thought these gods possessed.

 Allah the Almighty revealed: «And they [idolaters] have said: “You shall not leave your gods, nor shall you leave Wadd, nor Suwa’, nor Yaghuth, nor Ya’uq nor Nasr [names of the idols]. “» Surah 71: 23

 Originally these were the names of good people who had lived among them. After their deaths, statues of them were erected to keep their memories alive. After some time, however, people began to worship these statues. Later generations did not even know why they had been erected; they only knew their parents had prayed to them. That is how idol worshiping developed. Since they had no understanding of Allah the Almighty Who would punish them for their evil deeds, they became cruel and immoral.

 Ibn ‘Abbas explained: “Following upon the death of those righteous men, Satan inspired their people to erect statues in the places where they used to sit. They did this, but these statues were not worshiped until the coming generations deviated from the right way of life. Then they worshiped them as their idols.”

In his version, Ibn Jarir narrated: “There were righteous people who lived in the period between Adam and Noah and who had followers who held them as models. After their death, their friends who used to emulate them said: ‘If we make statues of them, it will be more pleasing to us in our worship and will remind us of them.’ So they built statues of them, and, after they had died and others came after them, Iblis crept into their minds saying: ‘Your forefathers used to worship them, and through that worship they got rain.’ So they worshiped them.”

Ibn Abi Hatim related this story: “Waddan was a righteous man who was loved by his people. When he died, they withdrew to his grave in the land of Babylonia and were overwhelmed by sadness. When Iblis saw their sorrow caused by his death, he disguised himself in the form of a man saying: ‘I have seen your sorrow because of this man’s death; can I make a statue like him which could be put in your meeting place to make you remember him?’ They said: ‘Yes.’ So he made the statue like him. They put it in their meeting place in order to be reminded of him. When Iblis saw their interest in remembering him, he said: ‘Can I build a statue of him in the home of each one of you so that he would be in everyone’s house and you could remember him?’ They agreed. Their children learned about and saw what they were doing. They also learned about their remembrance of him, until they took him to be a deity and worshiped him instead of Allah. So the first to be worshiped instead of Allah was Waddan, the idol which they named thus.”

 The essence of this point is that every idol from those earlier mentioned was worshiped by a certain group of people. It was mentioned that people made pictures and as the ages passed they made these pictures into statues, so that their forms could be fully recognised; afterwards they were worshiped instead of Allah.

 It was narrated that ‘Umm Salmah and ‘Umm Habibah told Allah’s Prophet Muhammad [PBUH] about the church called “Maria” which they had seen in the land of Abyssinia. They described its beauty and the pictures therein. He said: “Those are the people who build places of worship on the grave of every dead man who was righteous and then make therein those pictures. Those are the worst of creation unto Allah.” Sahih Al-Bukhari

Worshiping anything other than Allah is a tragedy that results not only in the loss of freedom; its serious effect reaches man’s mind and destroys it as well. Almighty Allah created man and his mind with its purpose set on achieving knowledge, the most important of which is that Allah alone is the Creator and all the rest are worshipers [slaves]. Therefore, disbelief in Allah, or polytheism, results in the loss of freedom, the destruction of the mind, and the absence of a noble target in life.

Into this environment Allah sent Noah with His message to his people. Noah was the only intellectual not caught in the whirlpool of man’s destruction which was caused by polytheism.

Allah in His mercy sent His messenger Noah to guide his people. Noah was an excellent speaker and a very patient man. He pointed out to his people the mysteries of life and the wonders of the universe. He pointed out how the night is regularly followed by the day and that the balance between these opposites was designed by Allah the Almighty for our good. The night gives coolness and rest while the day gives warmth and awakens activity. The sun encourages growth, keeping all plants and animals alive, while the moon and stars assist in the reckoning of time, direction and seasons. He pointed out that the ownership of the heavens and the earth belongs only to the Divine Creator.

Therefore, he explained to his people, there cannot have been more than one deity. He clarified to them how the devil had deceived them for so long and that the time had come for this deceit to stop. Noah spoke to them of Allah’s glorification of man, how He had created him and provided him with sustenance and the blessings of a mind. He told them that idol worshiping was a suffocating injustice to the mind. He warned them not to worship anyone but Allah and described the terrible punishment Allah would mete out if they continued in their evil ways.

The people listened to him in silence, His words were a shock to their stagnating minds, as it is a shock to a person who is asleep under a wall which is about to fall and who is vigorously awakened. This person may be alarmed and may even become angry although the aim was to save him.

Noah’s people were divided into two groups after his warning. His words touched the hearts of the weak, the poor, and the miserable and soothed their wounds with its mercy. As for the rich, the strong, the mighty and the rulers, they looked upon the warning with cold distrust. They believed they would be better off if things stayed as they were. Therefore, they started their war of words against Noah.

 First they accused Noah of being only human like themselves. «The chiefs of the disbelievers among his people said: ‘We see you but a man like ourselves.”» Surah 11:27. He, however, had never said anything other than that. He asserted that, indeed, he was only a human being: Allah had sent a human messenger because the earth was inhabited by humans. If it had been inhabited by angels Allah would have sent an angelic messenger.

 The contest between the polytheists and Noah continued. The rulers had thought at first that Noah’s call would soon fade on its own. When they found that his call attracted the poor, the helpless, and common laborers, they started to verbally attack and taunt him: “You are only followed by the poor, the meek, and the worthless.”

 Allah the Almighty told us: «And indeed We sent Noah to his people [and he said]: “I have come to you as a plain warner, that you worship none but Allah, surely, I fear for you the torment of a painful Day.” The chiefs of the disbelievers among his people said: ‘We see you but a man like ourselves, nor do we see any follow you but the meanest among us and they [too] followed you without thinking. And we do not see in you any merit above us, in fact, we think you are liars.”» Surah 11: 25-27

 Thus the conflict between Noah and the heads of his people intensified. The disbelievers tried to bargain: “Listen, Noah, if you want us to believe in you, then dismiss your believers. They are meek and poor, while we are elite and rich; no faith can include us both.” Noah listened to the heathens of his community and realised they were being obstinate. However, he was gentle in his response. He explained to his people that he could not dismiss the believers, as they were not his guests but Allah’s.

 Noah appealed to them: «”And O my people! I ask of you no wealth for it, my reward is from none but Allah. I am not going to drive away those who have believed. Surely, they are going to meet their Lord, but I see that you are a people that are ignorant. And O my people! Who will help me against Allah, if I drove them away? Will you not then give a thought? And I do not say to you that with me are the Treasures of Allah nor that I know the Ghaib [unseen]; nor do I say I am an angel, and I do not say of those whom your eyes look down upon that Allah will not bestow any good on them. Allah knows what is in their inner-selves [as regards Belief etc.]. In that case, I should, indeed be one of the Zalimeen [wrong-doers, oppressors, etc.].”» Surah 11: 29-31

Noah refuted the arguments of the disbelievers with the noble knowledge of the prophets. It is the logic of intellect that rids itself of personal pride and interests.

The rulers were tired of Noah’s arguments. Allah the Exalted related their attitude: «They said: “O Noah! You have disputed with us and much have you prolonged the dispute with us, now bring upon us what you threaten us with, if you are of the truthful.” He said: “Only Allah will bring it [the punishment] on you, if He will, and then you will escape not. And my advice will not profit you, even if I wish to give you counsel, if Allah’s Will is to keep you astray. He is your Lord! And to Him you shall return.”» Surah 11: 32-34

The battle continued; the arguments between the disbelievers and Noah became prolonged. When all the refutations of the disbelievers collapsed and they had no more to say, they began to be rude and insulted Allah’s prophet: «The leaders of his people said: “Verily, we see you in plain error.” Surah 7: 60

Noah responded in the manner of the prophets: «”O my people! There is no error in me, but I am a Messenger from the Lord of the ‘Alamin [mankind, jinn and all that exists]! I convey unto you the Messages of my Lord and give sincere advice to you. And I know from Allah what you know not.”»Surah 7:61.62

Noah continued appealing to his people to believe in Allah hour after hour, day after day, year after year. He admonished his people and called them to Allah day and night, in secret and openly. He gave them examples, explained Allah’s signs and illustrated Allah’s ability in the formation of His creatures. But whenever he called them to Allah, they ran away from him. Whenever he urged them to ask Allah to forgive them, they put their fingers in their ears and became too proud to listen to the truth.

Allah the Almighty related what Noah faced: «Verily, We sent Noah to his people [saying]: ‘Warn your people before there comes to them a painful torment.”He said: “O my people! Verily, I am a plain warner to you, that you should worship Allah [Alone], be dutiful to Him, and obey me. He [Allah] will forgive you of your sins and respite you to an appointed term. Verily, the term of Allah when it comes, cannot be delayed, if you but knew.” He said: “O my Lord! Verily, I have called my people night and day [i.e. secretly and openly to accept the doctrine of Islamic Monotheism], but all my calling added nothing but to [their] flight [from the truth]. And verily! Every time I called unto them that You might forgive them, they thrust their fingers into their ears, covered themselves up with their garments, and persisted [in their refusal], and magnified themselves in pride. Then verily, I called to them openly [aloud]; then verily, I proclaimed to them in public, and I have appealed to them in private, I said [to them]: ‘Ask forgiveness from your Lord; Verily, He is Oft-Forgiving; He will send rain to you in abundance; and give you increase in wealth and children, and bestow on you gardens and bestow on you rivers.” What is the matter with you, [that you fear not Allah [His Punishment], and] you hope not for reward [from Allah or you believe not in His Oneness]. While He has created you in [different] stages. See you not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another, and has made the moon a light therein, and made the sun a lamp? And Allah has brought you forth from the [dust of] earth. Afterwards He will return you into it [the earth], and bring you forth [again on the Day of Resurrection] And Allah has made for you the earth wide spread [an expanse] that you may go about therein in broad roads. Noah said: “My Lord! They have disobeyed me, and followed one whose wealth and children give him no increase but only loss. And they have plotted a mighty plot. And they have said: ‘You shall not leave your gods, nor shall you leave Wadd, nor Suwa’, nor Yaghuth, nor Ya’uq nor Nasr [names of the idols].’ And indeed they have led many astray. And [O Allah]! Grant no increase to the Zalimeen [polytheists, wrong-doers, and disbelievers, etc.] save error.” Because of their sins they were drowned, then were made to enter the Fire, and they found none to help them instead of Allah.» Surah 71: 1-25

Noah continued to call his people to believe in Allah for nine hundred fifty years. Allah the Almighty said: «And indeed We sent Noah to his people, and he stayed among them a thousand years less fifty years [inviting them to believe in the Oneness of Allah [Monotheism], and discard the false gods and other deities].»Surah 29:14

It happened that every passing generation admonished the succeeding one not to believe Noah and to wage war against him. The father used to teach his child about the matter that was between himself and Noah and counsel him to reject his call when he reached adulthood. Their natural disposition rejected believing and following the truth.

 Noah saw that the number of believers was not increasing, while that of the disbelievers was. He was sad for his people, but he never reached the point of despair.

There came a day when Allah revealed to Noah that no others would believe. Allah inspired him not to grieve for them, at which point Noah prayed that the disbelievers be destroyed. He said: «”My Lord! Leave not one of the disbelievers on the earth. If you leave them, they will mislead Your slaves, and they will beget none but wicked disbelievers.» Surah 71:27

 Allah accepted Noah’s prayer. The case was closed, and He passed His judgement on the disbelievers in the form of a flood. Allah the Exalted ordered His worshiper Noah to build an ark with His knowledge and instructions, and with the help of angels. Almighty Allah commanded: «”And construct the ship under Our Eyes and with Our Inspiration, and address Me not on behalf of those who did wrong; they are surely to be drowned.”» Surah 11:37

 Noah chose a place outside the city, far from the sea. He collected wood and tools and began to work day and night to build the ark. The people’s mockery continued: “O Noah! Does carpentry appeal to you more than Prophet hood? Why are you building an ark so far from the sea? Are you going to drag it to the water or is the wind going to carry it for you?” Noah replied: “You will come to know who will be put to shame and suffer.”

Allah the Almighty narrated: «And as he was constructing the ship, whenever the chiefs of his people passed by him, they made a mockery of him. He said: “If you mock at us, so do we mock at you likewise for your mocking. And you will know who it is on whom will come a torment that will cover him with disgrace and on whom will fall a lasting torment.”» Surah 11: 38-39

The ship was constructed, and Noah sat waiting Allah’s command. Allah revealed to him that when water miraculously gushed forth from the oven at Noah’s house, that would be the sign of the start of the flood, the sign for Noah to act.

The terrible day arrived when the oven at Noah’s house overflowed. Noah hurried to open the ark and summon the believers. He also took with him a pair, male and female, of every type of animal, bird and insect. Seeing him taking these creatures to the ark, the people laughed loudly: “Noah must have gone out of his head! What is he going to do with the animals?”

Almighty Allah narrated: «[So it was] till then there came Our Command and the oven gushed forth [water like fountains from the earth]. We said: “Embark therein, of each kind two [male and female], and your family, except him against whom the Word has already gone forth, and those who believe.” And none believed him, except a few.» Surah 11:40

 Noah’s wife was not a believer with him, so she did not join him; neither did one of Noah’s sons, who was secretly a disbeliever but had pretended faith in front of Noah. Likewise most of the people were disbelievers and did not go on board.

 The scholars [‘Ulama] hold different opinions on the number of those who were with Noah on the ship. Ibn ‘Abbas stated that there were eighty believers, while Ka’ab Al-Ahbar held that there were seventy-two. Others claimed that there were ten believers with Noah.

 Water rose from the cracks in the earth; there was not a crack from which water did not rise. Rain poured from the sky in quantities never seen before on the earth. Water continued pouring from the sky and rising from the cracks; hour after hour the level rose. The seas and waves invaded the land. The interior of the earth moved in a strange way, and the ocean floors lifted suddenly, flooding the dry land. The earth, for the first time, was submerged.

Allah told the story thus: «And he [Noah] said: “Embark therein, in the Name of Allah will be its moving course and its resting anchorage. Surely, my Lord is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” So it [the ship] sailed with them amidst the waves like mountains, and Noah called out to his son, who had separated himself [apart], “O my son! Embark with us and be not with the disbelievers.” The son replied: “I will betake myself to a mountain, it will save me from the water.” Noah said: “This day there is no savior from the Decree of Allah except him on whom He has mercy.” And a wave came in between them, so he [the son] was among the drowned. And it was said: “O earth! Swallow up your water, and O sky! Withhold [your rain].” And the water was diminished [made to subside] and the Decree [of Allah] was fulfilled [i.e. the destruction of the people of Noah]. And it [the ship] rested on Mount Judi, and it was said: “Away with the people who are Zalimeen [polytheists and wrong-doing]!”And Noah called upon his Lord and said, “O my Lord! Verily, my son is of my family! And certainly, Your Promise is true, and You are the Most Just of the judges.” He said: “O Noah! Surely, he is not of your family; verily, his work is unrighteous, so ask not of Me that of which you have no knowledge! I admonish you, lest you be one of the ignorant.”Noah said: “O my Lord! I seek refuge with You from asking You that of which I have no knowledge. And unless You forgive me and have Mercy on me, I would indeed be one of the losers.” It was said: “O Noah! Come down [from the ship] with peace from Us and blessings on you and on the people who are with you [and on some of their offspring], but [there will be other] people to whom We shall grant their pleasures [for a time], but in the end a painful torment will reach them from Us.”» Surah 11:41:48

With the issue of the divine command, calm returned to earth, the water retreated, and the dry land shone once again in the rays of the sun. The flood had cleansed the earth of the disbelievers and polytheists.

Noah released the birds and the beasts, which scattered over the earth. After that the believers disembarked. Noah put his forehead to the ground in prostration. The survivors kindled a fire and sat around it. Lighting a fire had been prohibited on board so as not to ignite the ship’s wood and burn it up. None of them had eaten hot food during the entire period of the flood. Following the disembarkation there was a day of fasting in thanks to Allah.

The Qur’an draws the curtain on Noah’s story. We do not know how his affairs with his people continued. All we know or can ascertain is that on his deathbed, he requested his son to worship Allah alone. Noah then passed away.

‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Amru Ibn Al’aas narrated that Prophet Muhammad [P.B.U.H.] said: “When the death of the Messenger of Allah Noah approached, he admonished his sons: ‘Indeed I would give you far-reaching advice, commanding you to do two things, and warning you against doing two as well. I charge you [to believe] that there is no god but Allah and that if the seven heavens and the seven earths were put on one side of a scale and the words “There is no god but Allah” were put on the other, the latter would outweigh the former. And I warn you against associating partners with Allah and against pride.” Sahih Al-Bukhari

Some traditions said that his grave is in the Sacred Mosque in Mecca [Makkah], while others said that he was buried in Baalabak, a city in Iraq. Sahih Al-Bukhari